Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. HUNTER, University of Kentucky, United States, Paul J.J. van GEEST, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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(2,357 words)

Author(s): Prinzivalli-Sapienza, Emanuela
Gaius was a Christian writer who lived in Rome at the end of the 2nd century CE. The only details about his life come from Eusebius of Caesarea, who betrays his own great esteem for Gaius. At first he characterizes him as ἐκκλησιαστικὸς ἀνήρ/ ecclêsiasticos anêr (Eus. Hist. eccl. 2.25.6), an expression that – in Eusebius’ terminology – is used to indicate one’s orthodoxy above all; later he calls him λογιότατος/ loghiotatos ( Hist. eccl. 6.203, “very erudite”). Eusebius places him at Rome during Zephyrinus’ pontificate (199–217 CE) and says that Gaius wrote a Dialogue against Proclus, wh…
Date: 2019-03-25


(3,054 words)

Author(s): Salazar-Ortiz, Natalia
Galatia is a highland area comprising the region crossed by the upper courses of the rivers Halys and Sangarius and extending from Paphlagonia to the Lake Tuz in the northern plateau of Central Anatolia, in current Turkey. In Hellenistic era, it was bounded on the north by the kingdom of Pontus, on the east by Cappadocia, Bithynia on the west, and by the kingdom of Pergamum on the south. The Galatian highlands are a monotonous country of bare mountains with small plains between them. Its average…
Date: 2019-03-25


(1,829 words)

Author(s): Ramelli, Ilaria L.E.
Claudius Galen (129–199/216 CE) was an exceptionally prolific Greek polymath, philosopher and physician, an expert in physiology, anatomy, and neurology, and the physician of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. He also was well-versed in Greek literature (Lacy, 1966; Rosen, 2013), and from the philosophical viewpoint concentrated on the soul and the soul-body relation issue (Hankinson, 1991; Tieleman, 1996; Dillon, forthcoming). He reports Marcus’ laudatory words about him as both a physician and a philosopher in Gal. Praen. 14.658 (ed. Kühn). The title of…
Date: 2019-03-25


(3,220 words)

Author(s): Sales-Carbonell, Jordina
The territory of Gallaecia was established as a Roman province during the late 3rd century CE and was located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. It broadly corresponded with the current autonomous region of Galicia, and parts of Asturias, Leon, and Zamora (Spain), as well as a small part of northern Portugal. Its main river is the Miño, which crosses the region from north to south and flows into the Atlantic. On its western shore we find Cape Finisterre ( finis terrae), which the Romans considered the westernmost point of the known world.The Galaici were the indigenous people ag…
Date: 2019-03-25

Gallican Liturgy

(2,835 words)

Author(s): Rose, Els
The term “Gallican liturgy” in this lemma refers to the  liturgical practices current in early medieval Gaul, also denoted as “the liturgy of Gaul” (Vogel, 1981, 275) or “Old-Gallican liturgy” (Vismans, 1958–1962, vol. II, 778, 2084–2085), the individual character of which gradually waned under the influence of the Carolingian liturgical reforms during the late 8th and the 9th century CE. The individuality of the Gallican liturgy encompasses singular features in the order of Mass, the style of l…
Date: 2019-03-25


(4,017 words)

Author(s): Weigel, Richard
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus; r. 253–268 CE; Church and Empire) was born about 218 CE (Wickert, 1926, 84, 350–352). He was the son of Valerian I and Mariniana and was confirmed by the Roman Senate as Augustus and co-emperor when Valerian was approved in 253 CE. Valerian placed Gallienus in charge of the western provinces when he left Rome to command the armies in the eastern provinces and defend against incursions of the Persians, Goths, and other tribes. Gallienus married Corn…
Date: 2019-03-25

Gaudentius of Brescia

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Lizzi Testa, Rita
AH -> second sentence -> Gaud. Brix.  Tr. preface 4. What do abbreviations Brix.  Tr, stand for? Tract Tract.bishopAmbrose of Milan Tract Tract Ep.ordination TractIt was surely Ambrose who devised such a procedure, to ensure a worthy successor to Philastrius. Gaudentius was equipped with a strong doctrinal preparation, whose orthodoxy was ensured by the anti-heretic commitment of his master, and the recent pilgrimage to the Holy Land had enriched him spiritually, allowing him to come into contact with important figure…
Date: 2019-03-25


(6,972 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
The geographical peculiarities of the land mass of Gaul have influenced its history, and the history of its church, in profound ways. On the other hand, it was history that made it into a coherent entity in the first place ( CAH, vol. X, 464-67; Delaplace & France, 2011, Introduction). Prior to the Roman conquest by Julius Caesar during the years between 59 BCE and 50 BCE, the territory was made up of a variety of tribes and cultures, predominantly Celtic but without a sense of unity. It was Roman imperialism that created Gaul, if only…
Date: 2019-03-25


(3,189 words)

Author(s): Somov, Alexey
Gehenna is a term for the place of punishment of the wicked in Judaism and early Christianity. It takes its name from a valley near Jerusalem, which later, due to its evil reputation as the place of idolatrous practices, was transformed into the place of final destiny and punishment of the wicked, that is, to hell.OriginsGreek γέεννα/ géenna corresponds to Hebrew גֵּי־הִנֹּם / gê-hinnom (the valley of Hinnom; Josh 15:8), the short form of גֵּי(א) בֶן־הִנֹּם/ [ ʾben-hinnom (the valley of the son of Hinnom; Josh 18:16; Jer 7:31), or בְנֵי־הִנֹּםגֵּי/ gê bǝnê-hinnom (the valley of t…
Date: 2019-03-25
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