Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. HUNTER, University of Kentucky, United States, Paul J.J. van GEEST, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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Date: 2018-10-15

Sacramentarium Gelasianum

(1,459 words)

Author(s): Tymister, Markus
The Sacramentarium Gelasianum ( Gelasian Sacramentary) is one of the first known liturgical books of the western church. It is also called the Sacramentarium Gelasianum vetus ( Old Gelasian Sacramentary), since it is one of the sources of the Gelasian Sacramentaries of the 8th century CE. The only surviving manuscript was not the first draft but a copy produced approximately 750 CE probably in the monastery of Chelles, located just east of Paris. The manuscript is presently housed in the Vatican Library (Reg. lat. 316). The original m…
Date: 2019-03-25


(6,316 words)

Author(s): Ullucci, Daniel
AH: in text there is: "... Heb 5–9; Ign. Rom. 2, 4...” Is it   2; 4 0r 2.4? Christianity emerged in a world of sacrifice, not only in the wider context of the ancient Mediterranean, where offerings to the gods where a key part of almost all aspects of family and civic life, but also in earliest Christianity’s proximate context, Judaism of the Second Temple period. Surprisingly, dominant voices within Christianity eventually rejected animal sacrifice while simultaneously creating a theological discourse that prese…
Date: 2019-03-25


(1,234 words)

Author(s): Spronk, Klaas
AH: see "...the death of Christ brings liberation (Hymn 13.4).” I assume Ephraim the Syrian is the author (if not who then?), but in abbreviation list there are: Ephr. Hym. Faith = Ephraim the Syrian, Hymns on Faith; Ephr. Hym. Haer. = Ephraim the Syrian, Hymn Contra Haereses;  Ephr. Hym. Jul. = Ephraim the Syrian, Hymni Contra Julianum; Ephr. Hym. Nat. = Ephraim the Syrian, Hymns on the Nativity of Christ; Ephr. Hym. Vir. = Ephraim the Syrian, Hymni de virginitate; Ephr. Nis. Hym. = Ephraim the Syrian, Nisibene Hymns. Does author refers to one of these hymns or another? An elabora…
Date: 2019-03-25


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Date: 2019-03-25


(522 words)

Author(s): Frisius, Mark A.
Scapula, proconsul of Africa (212–213 CE), is typically identified as P. Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus, consul ordinaris in 195 CE. A secondary identification is his cousin C. Julius (Scapula) Lepidus Tertullus, one of the consul suffects in 195 CE (Barnes, 1986, 202–203; Birley, 1992, 53). Little is known about the family of Scapula, although it must have had some significance as few former consuls became proconsuls of Africa (Potter, 2010, 297).Scapula was the recipient of a short, open letter from Tertullian, penned after the near total eclipse of the sun on Aug 14, 212 CE (Tert. Sca…
Date: 2019-03-25


(2,778 words)

Author(s): Hezser, Catherine
Throughout antiquity, scribes were professional writers of manuscripts and documents (Roberts, 1970; Haines-Eitzen, 2000; Hezser, 2001). Since writing was a technical skill that required special training, it was usually done by professionals who practiced their trade to make a living. In First and Second Temple times, scribes who were experts in writing Torah scrolls were associated with the Temple. The Temple would also have needed administrative scribes trained in writing documents, sales rece…
Date: 2019-03-25


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Date: 2019-03-25


(1,770 words)

Author(s): Springer , Carl
Sedulius was a Christian Latin poet who probably lived in the 5th century CE. In a prefatory letter to his patron, Macedonius, he mentions Jerome and the fact that he dedicated literary works to female friends. This gives us a terminus post quem of the late 4th century CE for Sedulius’ Paschale carmen. A subscription preserved in a Bobbio manuscript (Torino: Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, E.IV.42; 7th cent) informs us that Turcius Rufius Apronianus Asterius (Roman consul in 494 CE) produced some sort of an edition of Sedulius’ “holy work” ( sacrum opus). So, the poem must have be…
Date: 2019-03-25

Sermon on the Mount

(6,786 words)

Author(s): Ruzer, Serge
The Sermon on the Mount in Matthew opens with Matt 5:1–2 ("Seeing the crowds, he went on the mountain, and [...] taught [...]") and continues to the end of chapter 7. The parallel section in Luke (Sermon on the Plain) is much shorter: Luke 6:(17–)20–49. With a few exceptions, the material found in the Sermon does not appear in Mark. Suggestions concerning the sources of the tradition mostly refer to sayings from the hypothetical pre-synoptic source (Q) or its variants (QMt and QLk) arranged in two substantially different ways in Matthew and Luke (Betz, 1995, 42–44). The arran…
Date: 2019-03-25


(4,938 words)

Author(s): Luttikhuizen, Gerard P.
With reference to a few patristic sources, recent scholarship uses the name “Sethians” to denote the hypothetical religious groups(s) behind gnostic mythological stories in which Adam’s son Seth figures more or less prominently as possessor of divine wisdom and/or as savior of his “sacred seed.”Patristic SourcesThe earliest surviving patristic testimony is a brief report summarizing the mythical beliefs of a sect of “Sethoitae” in Ps.-Tert., Haer. 2 (early 3rd cent. CE). The account of Epiph. Pan. 39, closely resembles that of Pseudo-Tertullian but he calls the members…
Date: 2019-03-25

Seth, Second Discourse of the Great

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Burns, Dylan M.
AH: see “...designated by G. Schenke as exponents of the Sethian...” Schenke is not in bibliography. Please provide details of his publication(s). The Second Treatise (or Discourse) of the Great Seth is the second tractate of the best-preserved codex discovered at Nag Hammadi (Upper Egypt) in 1945 – codex 7 – and so is among the most complete of the Coptic texts making up the Nag Hammadi collection. The scribal hand of the codex is a practiced, lovely uncial script, identical to that of the latter treatises of NHC 11 ( Allogenes and Hypsiphrone). The scribe of the first half of NHC 11 a…
Date: 2019-03-25

Seth, Three Steles of

(1,654 words)

Author(s): Burns, Dylan M.
The Three Steles of Seth is the fifth and last tractate of the best-preserved codex discovered at Nag Hammadi (Upper Egypt) in 1945 – codex 7 – although it suffers from deterioration in its final pages. The scribal hand of the codex is a practiced, lovely unical script, identical to that of the latter treatises of NHC 11 ( Allogenes and Hypsiphrone). The scribe of the first half of NHC 11 also wrote NHC 1.4 ( Treatise on the Resurrection), and the make of codices 1, 7, and 11 are similar, so the three books are generally considered to compose a subcollection (Painchaud & K…
Date: 2019-03-25
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