Encyclopaedia Islamica

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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Dābbat al-Arḍ

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj | Abbas, Najam
, a Qurʾānic term for a creature or beast that lives and moves on the earth, it has a special meaning in a tradition regarding the signs which will appear at the end of time ( ashrāṭ al-sāʿa). The term dābba appears in its literal sense in the Qurʾānic verses 6:38, 11:6, 16:49, 27:82 and 34:14. However, the term has quite a different connotation in 27:82: ‘When the word is fulfilled against them, We shall bring forth a creature ( dābba) out of the earth, to speak to them, as people had no faith in Our revelations’; it takes on a deeper significance when read along with the …

Dādā, Taqī al-Dīn Muḥammad

(1,261 words)

Author(s): Movahhed, Maryam Falahati | Negahban, Farzin
(d. 700/1301), titled Dādā Muḥammad and Dādā Taqī al-Dīn, was a notable 7th/13th century Sufi shaykh (master) in Yazd. Most of the information about him and his Sufi order is to be found in the local histories of Yazd. All that is known about his youth is that he was born in Iṣfahān where he made a living winnowing grain, and that from his youth Taqī al-Dīn practised spiritual wayfaring, asceticism and spiritual discipline, and spent most of what he earned on those in need. He was the disciple of a master by the n…

Dāgh, and Dāgh Kardan

(6,142 words)

Author(s): Ali A. Bulookbashi
Dāgh and dāgh kardan, a brand or the act of branding, but also to cauterise or to stigmatise, in the literal sense. Dāgh refers to the mark left on a human or animal body by a red-hot metal implement such as a skewer, bar, needle, awl, spike, or cast stone being applied to the skin; a black mark on the skin of a human or animal; or the act of burning the skin and impressing a mark on the skin of a human or animal using a red-hot implement. This might be done in order to treat an illness, for the purposes of torture, …
Date: 2018-09-19

Daḥlān

(1,890 words)

Author(s): Pat, Fariba | Brown, Keven
, Shihāb al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Zaynī (1233–1304/1817–1886), was a famous Meccan scholar, whose lineage is said to trace back through ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (al-Gīlānī) (d. 561/1166) to a long line of Ḥasanī sayyids (Daḥlān, al-Sīra, introd., 1/5; on ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī’s lineage see al-Tādifī, 3; cf. Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā, 95–96; Ibn ʿInaba, 130). He was born in Mecca (al-Kattānī, 1/390; Mujāhid, 1/265), where he was taught by scholars such as Muḥammad Saʿīd al-Maqdisī, Bishrī al-Jabartī, Ḥāmid al-ʿAṭṭār and others. The most important of his teachers in the field of ḥadīth was …

Dahr (in the Qurʾān)

(1,670 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Esots, Janis
a conception of ‘time’, which survives from the pre-Islamic period; both the Qurʾān and the ḥadīth criticise religious faith in dahr, conceived as a kind of cosmic force or inevitable fatality. The verbal noun of its triliteral root d-h-r in Arabic refers to descending or falling, in a pejorative sense (although it is not used in this sense in the Qurʾān). The passive participle, madhūr, means ‘calamity-stricken’ or ‘afflicted by a disaster’. The primary meaning of the word dahr as it occurs in the Qurʾān (Q 76:1, ‘Hath there come upon man any period of time in which he w…

Dahriyya

(4,221 words)

Author(s): Tareh. Masoud | Shah-Kazemi, Reza | Asatryan, Mushegh | Khaleeli, Alexander
, or ahl al-dahr, a designation referring to those thinkers who putatively uphold various materialistic and atheistic opinions and trends. They are seen, by those framing the designation, as disbelievers inasmuch as they believe that Time ( dahr or maniyya), understood as ineluctable Fate, alone dictates all things in the cosmos. There is little evidence of specific groups or individuals adhering to this philosophy; rather, it appears to have been a convenient typological category used by heresiographers to stigmatise those deemed to…

Daḥw al-Arḍ

(2,677 words)

Author(s): Mehrvash, Farhang | Esots, Janis
(Spreading out the Earth), an expression that refers to the expansion of the earth from beneath the Kaʿba at the beginning of creation. It is taken from the Qurʾān (79:30) and refers to a belief held within certain circles of pious Shiʿi Muslims. Every year, on 25 Dhū al-Qaʿda, the anniversary of this event is commemorated within these circles. In order to explain the meaning of the expression, first one must establish the meaning of the word daḥw. An analysis of the different usages of words derived from the root d-ḥ-w during the first centuries after the advent of Islam shows that …

Dāʿī

(4,034 words)

Author(s): Daftary, Farhad
(pl., duʿāt, literally meaning ‘summoner’), an Arabic noun used by several Muslim groups, especially the Ismailis, to designate their propagandists or missionaries. It was adopted by the ʿAbbāsid daʿwa (mission) in Khūrāsān (q.v. ʿAbbāsids) and by the early Muʿtazilīs, but it soon became particularly identified with certain Shiʿi groups, for example, the Zaydīs and some Shiʿi extremists ( ghulāt), notably the Khaṭṭābiyya (Daftary, 219). The term acquired its widest application in connection with the Ismailis, though early Ismaili authors in Persia some…

Dāʾira, Daf

(3,402 words)

Author(s): Narges Zaker Jafari
Dāʾira, Daf, a type of frame drum, or membranophone, known in many regions by the name of daf and consisting of a skin stretched on one surface (and hollow inside) in the form of a circle or a ring and similar to the modern western tambourine. The dāʾira with cymbals ( dāʾira zangī) is played in most regions of Iran and the various types are classified according to the sound which the cymbals make on the membrane of the tambour (Darwīshī, 489).NomenclatureEtymologically, the name daf is cognate with the Hebrew tof (תֹּף) and the Aramaic tupa (תֻּפָּא), an instrument that in the Old Testamen…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dāʿī Shīrāzī

(2,196 words)

Author(s): Meysam Solgi
Dāʿī Shīrāzī, Sayyid Niẓām al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Ḥasan (810–870/1407–1466), known as Shāh Dāʿī, who had the honorific title ( laqab) of Dāʿī ilā Allāh and two pen-names, Dāʿī and subsequently Niẓāmī, was a famous poet and head of the Niʿmatu’llāhī order in Fārs. Not much is known about his family and youth, apart from the fact that he was born in Shīrāz into a family of Ḥasanī sayyids, descendants of Zayd b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, and was a descendant of one of the last rulers of the ʿAlid dynasty of Ṭabaristān, Dāʿī al-Ṣaghīr Ḥasan b. Qāsim al-Ḥasanī (d. 316/928) (Dāʿī Shīrāzī, Dīwān, 2/33–34, ibid., Ḥikma…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dajjāl

(4,156 words)

Author(s): Farhang Mehrvash
Dajjāl, an immense, grotesque creature in human form, characterised by extreme deceitfulness and generally regarded in Islamic tradition as the false Messiah or anti-Christ. It is said that the Dajjāl will make an appearance in the last days, when through his mastery over the forces of nature he will present himself as a possessor of divine powers and set in motion the greatest tribulation in human history, which will continue until his ultimate defeat. The mention of the Dajjāl in Prophetic tra…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dakkanī, Shāh ʿAlī-Riḍā

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Zahra Hosseini
Dakkanī, Shāh ʿAlī-Riḍā (d. 1214 or 1215/1799–1800), a famous Deccan Sufi and one of the most distinguished masters of the Niʿmat Allāhiyya order. Among his accomplishments were kindling the revival of the Niʿmat Allāhiyya order in Iran after a period of decline, and influencing the course of the formation of later Sufism in Iran (see below). Titles given to him—like ‘the pole of recent masters’, ‘the reviver of the way’, and ‘the renewer of the order’—which are mentioned in some Niʿmat Allāhiyy…
Date: 2018-09-19

Damascus

(34,199 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Naji | Ahmad Pakatchi | Russell Harris
Damascus, the capital city of the Syrian Arab Republic and the centre of a province by the same name in the south-west of Syria. Introduction EtymologyThere are numerous stories, many of a mythical character, about the founding and naming of Damascus. As regards the historical record, in the Tell el-Amarna tablets of Egypt, which date back to 14th century BCE, the city is named Ta-ms-qu and in the clay tablets of Ebla (Syria, Idlib province, ca. 2500 BCE) and in Assyrian texts (9th to 8th century BC) it is referred to a…
Date: 2018-09-19

Damāwand

(7,337 words)

Author(s): Shahram Khodaverdian
Damāwand, the name of the highest peak of the Alburz range in the north of Iran. Damāwand has held a significant place in Persian thought and culture for several millenia. It is also given great importance in Persian mythology and cosmology and, historically, this mountain has become the place of ancestral legends and a symbol of national identity for the Persians.The Relationship between ‘Damāwand’ and ‘Alburz’ in Ancient SourcesIn order to understand the role of Damāwand in Persian myth, religion and literature, one must first study the significance of the Al…
Date: 2018-09-19

Daniel

(2,938 words)

Author(s): Russell Harris
Daniel (Dāniyāl), the eponymous hero of the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament. A Daniel is named as a son of the prophet David in I Chronicles 3:1, although the name does not appear in the chronology of David in II Samuel 3:3, where he is also attributed to a different mother. In the books of Ezra (8:2) and Nehemiah (10:7), the name relates to a priest who returned from Babylonian exile.EtymologyThere is no dispute or controversy on the meaning of the name Daniel. The name is generally written plene, with all the vowels and points written out, in the Old Testament as דָּנִיֵּאל, whose pronunciat…
Date: 2018-09-19

Daqīqī, Abū Manṣūr

(3,562 words)

Author(s): Yadollah Shokri | Ali Mir-Ansari
Daqīqī, Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (fl. 4th/10th century), was a Persian poet and one of the earliest composers of epic (q.v.) poetry in the history of Persian literature. There are differences of opinion regarding his biography, especially issues such as his precise name, birthplace, religion and date of death, since the information found scattered in the various sources is largely contradictory. ʿAwfī (2/11) and Hidāyat (1(2)/792) call him Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (see also Hāshimī Sandīlawī, 2/138),…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dārābnāmah

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Ali Mir-Ansari
Dārāb-nāmah, an ancient prose romance that recounts the story of the king Dārāb the son of Bahman, grandson of Isfandiyār, and great-grandson of Gushtāsp, and Humāy Chihrāzād, variously considered to be the daughter of the king of Egypt or the daughter of Bahman, hence the granddaughter of Isfandiyār. Like the story of Samak-i ʿAyyār, the Dārāb-nāmah probably originates in pre-Islamic literature (Tafaḍḍulī, 307). Rooted in the oral tradition, two recensions of the story now exist, compiled nearly four centuries apart, by two Persian-speaking authors, Ṭarsūsī and Bīghamī.The Dārāb-…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dāraquṭnī

(3,048 words)

Author(s): Faramarz Haj Manouchehri
al-Dāraquṭnī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUmar (306–385/918–995), a well-known scholar of  ḥadīth from Baghdad and composer of one of the last  sunan works.Biography, Education and StudentsHis nisba refers to the Dār al-Quṭn quarter of Baghdad. While some sources have given 305/917 as his year of birth, he himself writes that he was born in 306/918 (see al-Dāraquṭnī, Ilzāmāt, 116). Al-Dāraquṭnī’s father was also a scholar and ḥadīth expert, hence his son’s education began at home, where he benefitted not only from his father’s instruction but also from some of the…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dārā Shukūh

(10,258 words)

Author(s): Alireza Ebrahim | Shahram Khodaverdian
Dārā Shukūh, Muḥammad (1024–1069/1615–1658), Mughal Tīmūrid prince, prominent Sufi of the Qādiriyya order, and scholar of comparative religion. The name Dārā Shukūh is a Persian compound adjective and means ‘possessing the grandeur of a Darius’. Dārā translated several classic Hindu texts from Sanskrit into Persian; he also wrote a number of treatises, in some of which he outlined and explained the principal doctrines of Hinduism and compared them with the teachings of Sufism. He thus played an i…
Date: 2018-09-19

Darband

(6,808 words)

Author(s): Arash Pourjafar
Darband (presently Derbent, also previously Derbend), a historic city located in what is today the Republic of Dāghistān (Dagestan), which is a federal republic of Russia. It is situated on the western shores of the Caspian Sea on a narrow strip of land between the sea and the Ṭabarsarān mountains, part of the Greater Caucasus range, which stretch from the Eurasian Steppes in the north to the Iranian Plateau in the south.GeographyHot and dry in summer and cold in winter, Darband is situated in the south-east of Dāghistān, of which it is the second principal city.  …
Date: 2018-09-19

Darb-i Imām

(3,395 words)

Author(s): Abbasali Ahmadi
Darb-i Imām (lit. ‘ Imām’s gate’) also known as Imāmzādah or ‘Imāmzādah Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn’, a funerary complex in Iṣfahān constructed in 857/1453, during the reign of the Qarā-qūyūnlū ruler Jahān Shāh (r. 837–872/1434–1467). This mausoleum has been repaired, modified or expanded several times under the Ṣafawids (907–1135/1501–1722) and Qājārs (1193–1344/1779–1925), as well as in the current period. Darb-i Imām is located on the south side of Ibn Sīnā Street in one of the old quarters of Iṣfahān, and i…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dār al-Funūn

(2,646 words)

Author(s): Seyyed Ali Al-i Davud
Dār al-Funūn, lit., polytechnic college, one of the earliest centres of modern education in Iran and one of the institutes founded early in Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh Qājār’s reign (1264–1313/1848–1896) by Mīrzā Taqī Khān Amīr Kabīr, a reformist grand vizier ( ṣadr-i aʿẓam) of Iran. The Dār al-Funūn was primarily established to address the country’s needs in terms of military-related skills and technology, mining, medicine and other sciences. A vital result of Iran’s encounter with an industrialised western Europe, the rationale for the establi…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dārimī, Abū Muḥammad

(3,458 words)

Author(s): Faramarz Haj Manouchehri
al-Dārimī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Tamīmī al-Samarqandī (181–255/797–869), a  ḥadīth scholar and jurist of Persian origin, as well as the author of a s unan, one of the canonical Sunni ḥadīth collections. As his nisba ‘al-Dārimī’ indicates, he was a client of the Banū Dārim b. Mālik and his family’s roots were in Samarqand (al-Samʿānī, 2/441; al-Dhahabī, Siyar, 12/224). Al-Dārimī writes that he was born in the year that the famous muḥaddith and scholar Ibn Mubārak died, i.e. in 181/797 (al-Dhahabī, Siyar, 12/228).Despite his fame, not much is known about his…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dārimī, Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān

(1,488 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Kazem Alavi
al-Dārimī, Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd (ca. 200–Dhū al-Ḥijja 280/816–February 894) was a theologian and leading ḥadīth scholar. His nisba ‘al-Dārimī’ indicates that he was a descendant of Dārim b. Mālik, of the Banū Tamīm (al-Dhahabī, Taʾrīkh, 20/396; al-Samʿānī, 2/440; Ibn al-Athīr, 1/404; al-Subkī, 2/302). He is also known by the title al-Sijistānī (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, 6/153), because his family derived from Sijistān, although he eventually settled in Herat.He travelled far and wide in the Islamic lands and learnt many ḥadīths. In his pursuit of learning he joined the audiences…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dār al-Islām wa dār al-ḥarb

(4,066 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Sadeq Labbani Motlaq
Dār al-Islām wa dār al-ḥarb (lit. ‘the abode of Islam and the abode of war’) a term in Islamic jurisprudence that is used to demarcate the boundaries of Islamic territories, in order to determine the laws which are effective in any given region. This notion is thought to be one of the oldest political distinctions in the Islamic law of governance and virtually all the Islamic legal schools discuss it. However, the term was not conceived in relation to the modern notions of the nation state and stable political boundaries; on the contrary, the entire Muslim umma is treated as a single integ…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dār al-Nadwa

(978 words)

Author(s): Department of History
Dār al-Nadwa (lit. house of assembly), a building situated to the north of the Kaʿba where, before the emergence of Islam and for a short while thereafter, the nobles of the Quraysh gathered for council.The Arabic word nadwa derives from the root n-d-w, meaning ‘gathering’, ‘group’ (Ibn Manẓūr, 3/610–613). The assembly that met in the Dār al-Nadwa was a kind of consultative or governing council that apparently had no precedent among the Arabs (Zaryāb, 42; for more detail see al-ʿAsalī, 1/78 ff.). The nobles or elders of the Quraysh asse…
Date: 2018-09-19

Darqāwiyya

(4,597 words)

Author(s): Alireza Ebrahim | Stephen Hirtenstein
Darqāwiyya, or Darqāwa, is a branch of the Shādhiliyya Sufi ṭarīqa established in Morocco by Mawlāy Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-ʿArabī b. Aḥmad al-Darqāwī (d. 1239/1823). Given the contemporary account that he died at the age of 87 (Michon, ‘Témoignage’, 390), al-Darqāwī must have been born ca. 1152/1739 in the vicinity of Fez (Fās) into the tribe of the Banū Zarwāl. He claimed descent from the Ḥasanid sharīfs and the Idrīsids, a dynasty that had ruled swathes of North Africa for some 200 years (172–375/789–985). This physical connection clearly played an import…
Date: 2018-09-19

Darwīsh ʿAbd al-Majīd Ṭāliqānī

(1,993 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Hassan Semsar
Darwīsh ʿAbd al-Majīd Ṭāliqānī, was the most renowned calligrapher of the shikastah nasta ʿl ī q style of calligraphy in 12th/18th-century Iran. He was born around 1150/1737, in the Ṭāliqān (or Ṭālaqān) district of Qazwīn and in his youth went to Iṣfahān. He was known by the title ‘Darwīsh’ owing to his asceticism (Ādhar Begdilī, 415). Once in Iṣfahān, ʿAbd al-Majīd started practicing calligraphy (Akhtar, 170; Abū al-Ḥasan Ghaffārī, 444). At first he wrote in the nasta ʿl ī q script and only later did he turn his hand to the shikastah script, mastering it to the highest standard. In …
Date: 2018-09-19

Darwīsh (Dervish)

(6,601 words)

Author(s): Alireza Ebrahim | Stephen Hirtenstein
Darwīsh (Dervish) is a Sufi term meaning poor ( faqīr) and indigent ( nādār). In certain historical periods, especially in the east of Iran and among the Sufis of Khurāsān, it was applied to all Sufis, while at other times it was regarded as an expression for a particular stage on the spiritual path. Many different types of individuals have been referred to as ‘dervish’, ranging from those who interpreted poverty as the radical asceticism of mendicancy, itinerancy, celibacy and antinomian behaviour to those …
Date: 2018-09-19

Darwīsh Khān

(4,550 words)

Author(s): Farshad Tavakkoli
Darwīsh Khān, Ghulām Ḥusayn Darwīsh (1251–1305 Sh./1872–1926) a composer and tār and sitār virtuoso who is credited with numerous innovations in the traditional Persian repertoire ( dastgāh, q.v.). Ghulām Ḥusayn Darwīsh was one of the most distinguished students of Mīrzā Ḥusayn Qulī, one of the foremost virtuosos of the tār in the late Qājār era, and his brother Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh, virtuoso on the sitār who was responsible for codifying the dastgāh system of Persian music in the late 19th century.Darwīsh Khān was born in Tehran into a middle-class family. His father Ḥājjī Bas…
Date: 2018-09-24

Dastgāh

(4,518 words)

Author(s): Amir Koushkani
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dasūqī

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Hassan Mahdipour
al-Dasūqī, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. Abī al-Majd ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (or ʿAbd al-Majīd) (mid to late 7th/13th century), known as Abū al-ʿAynayn (‘the two-eyed one’), a prominent Egyptian Sufi who is regarded as one of the four saintly poles ( al-aqṭāb al-arbaʿa) and the eponym of the Ibrāhīmiyya Sufi order (also known as the Dasūqiyya or Burhāniyya).Biographical information about him is scarce and confused. Our major sources are Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d. 804/1402), who gives a brief notice about his tomb being visited in 786/1385 in his Ṭabaqāt al-awliyāʾ; al-Maqrīzī (d. 845/1442), who also g…
Date: 2018-09-19

David (Dāwūd)

(6,841 words)

Author(s): Faramarz Haj Manouchehri | Shahram Khodaverdian
David (Dāwūd), one of the prophet-kings of the Children of Israel (Banū Isrāʾīl). Part 1: David in the Qurʾān, Qurʾānic Literature, and ‘Stories of the Prophets’ ( Qiṣaṣ al-Anbiyāʾ). David is mentioned by name fifteen times in the Qurʾān, and once in a reference to ‘The House of David’ (Āl Dāwūd). The contexts in which David appears are as follows: (i) his presence in the army which fought Goliath (Jālūt) and his troops, and his killing of Goliath in single combat (Q 2:251); (ii) his prophethood, and the revelation to him of the Zabūr, or Psalms (Q 4:163, 17:55); (iii) his glorificatio…
Date: 2018-09-19

Daʿwa

(15,350 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Pakatchi | Farhad Daftary
Daʿwa, a Qurʾānic term that refers to the activity of the Prophets which, over the course of Islamic history, developed into an important concept that encompassed and was used with a broad spectrum of meanings. These ranged from the ‘call’ to embrace Islam or the missionary activities of a particular grouping within Islam. In its narrow sense, the term can refer to a rallying cry to a common cause e.g. to the right path usually connected to the ethos, values and ideals of a particular school of thought in a specific period of history. At times, daʿwa has been invoked by certain religious g…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dawāmī, ʿAbd Allāh

(5,246 words)

Author(s): Farid Khiradmand
Dawāmī, ʿAbd Allāh (1270–1359 Sh./1891–1980), was a performer of the radīf (classical Persian repertoire), vocalist, player of the tumbak (goblet drum) and virtuoso of traditional Iranian songs ( taṣnīf ). Dawāmī was born in 1270 Sh./1891 in the village of Ṭā, near Tafrish in Markazī Province, Iran. His father, Abū al-Qāsim, was a singer in taʿziya (Shiʿi passion plays) (Safvat, 136; Mashḥūn, 646). ʿAbd Allāh spent his childhood in the village and learnt the Qurʾān and Saʿadī’s Gulistān in the village school. Blessed with a good singing voice, it was during this same tim…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dawānī

(9,553 words)

Author(s): Janis Esots
al-Dawānī (also al-Dawwānī or Davānī) Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Asʿad Kāzarūnī Ṣiddīqī (ca. 830–908/ca. 1426 or 1427–1502), often referred to as ʿAllāma al-Dawānī or Muḥaqqiq (‘verifier’) al-Dawānī, an important intellectual figure of 9th/15th century Persia, one of the key representatives of the so-called School of Shīrāz. He was a philosopher, gnostic, theologician and logician, probably best known for his favourite concept of the ‘taste of divinisation/theosis’ ( dhawq al-ta ʾ alluh).Al-Dawānī was born in the village of Dawān (whence his nisba), near the town of…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dawāzdah Imām

(1,474 words)

Author(s): Zatollah Nikzad
Dawāzdah Imām, is a domed mausoleum or shrine ( buqʿa) in the city of Yazd which, according to the inscription of foundation, was built in 429/1038 apparently by two sons of Yināl, Abū Najam Badr and Abū Yaʿqūb Isḥāq, both commanders in the army of the founder of the Kākūyid dynasty, Abū Jaʿfar ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Daylamī, who reigned in the Jibāl ca. 398–443/1008–1041 (Afshār 2/311).There is no mention of this structure in any written historical source. However, the building has been recognised in recent research on the history of Persian architecture as a struc…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dawr

(2,806 words)

Author(s): Abdolhamid Moradi
Dawr, a term denoting a historical cycle in the Ismaili conception of sacred history. The Ismailis divided religious history into seven adwār (pl. of dawr), assigned to all but the last one of the law-giving prophets who are mentioned in the Qurʾān. The Ismaili idea of cyclical history is further elaborated in connection with their views about the imamate (see below). BackgroundA cyclical view of history is found in the teachings of many religious traditions, but the Ismaili notion of adwār probably goes back to similar doctrines held by the early Shiʿi ghulāt of the 2nd–3rd/8th–9th ce…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Dawr wa al-tasalsul

(4,209 words)

Author(s): Azadeh Sadat Sajjadi
al-Dawr wa al-tasalsul (‘circular argument’ and ‘infinite regress’), two Arabic terms in logic that are used to denote cases of fallacious argument and invalid reasoning. In philosophical discussions, these terms are employed to invalidate arguments or assumptions which logically entail one of two impossible states, namely: 1) A proof for a proposition or a cause for a phenomenon whose validity/existence ultimately depends upon itself; or 2) a chain of causation postulated for a phenomenon that goes back infinitely without terminating in another phenomenon.The word ‘ dawr’, in i…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dāwūd al-Anṭākī

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Younes Karamati
Dāwūd al-Anṭākī, Dāwūd b. ʿUmar al-Anṭākī (d. in Mecca 1007 or 1008/1598 or 1599), was a famous physician and man of letters from Antioch (Anṭākiya). Although he was blind from birth, thus being known as ‘al-Ḍarīr’ (the blind), he was also known as ‘al-Baṣīr’ (the one who has insight). Other epithets reported for him are: ‘al-Ḥakīm’ (the wise), ‘al-Māhir’ (the talented), ‘al-Farīd’ (the unique), ‘al-Ṭabīb’ (the physician) and ‘al-Ḥādhiq’ (the skilled) (al-Difāʿ, 420). The year of his birth is unk…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dāwūd b. al-Muḥabbar

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Ahmad Pakatchi
Dāwūd b. al-Muḥabbar, Abū Sulaymān al-Ṭāʾī (d. 8 Jumādā I 206/9 October 821), a traditionist ( muḥaddith) known not only for his asceticism ( zuhd) but also for his book Kitāb al-ʿaql.He originally came from an Iranian family, and his grandfather is reported to have been a client ( mawlā) who was taken as a prisoner of war from Iṣfahān (see Abū Nuʿaym, Dhikr, 2/165; cf. Ibn Māja, 2/929 for a ḥadīth attributed to Dāwūd about the virtues of Qazwīn). Apparently his father lived in Baṣra (see also Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilyat, 6/233), which was where Dāwūd grew up (al-ʿUqaylī, 2/35). For some time…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī

(951 words)

Author(s): Shahram Khodaverdian
Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī, Abū Sulaymān Dāwūd b. Nuṣayr al-Ṭāʾī al-Kūfī (d. 160 or 165/777 or 782) was a Sufi and ḥadīth scholar. He was Kūfan, and received his epithet ‘al-Ṭāʾī’ from the tribe of Ṭayyiʾ, which was part of the Kahlān branch of the tribal confederation of Qaḥṭān (Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, 515; Ibn Saʿd, 6/367; al-Samʿānī, 8/187). Nothing is known of his childhood and youth, except that he studied various disciplines in his hometown of Kūfa. He studied jurisprudence with the founder of the Ḥanafī school of law, Abū Ḥanīfa (q.v.), and became so prof…
Date: 2018-09-19

Day

(6,846 words)

Author(s): Stephen Hirtenstein
Day (Arabic: yawm, pl. ayyām, Persian: rūz), conventionally understood to refer to a whole 24-hour period or to the daytime period from sunrise to sunset (also known as nahār), but as in other Semitic languages such as Syriac and Aramaic, the meaning of yawm (Hebrew: yōm /יוֹם) particularly when used in the plural can be extended to indicate a much broader sense of time in general, including age or epoch. For example, the Hebrew name of the two Books of Chronicles is divrei ha-yamim /דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים or ‘reports of the times’. When used in Arabic with the definite article ( al-yawm), it mean…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Daylamī, Abū al-Ḥasan

(3,512 words)

Author(s): Zahra Hosseini
al-Daylamī, Abū al-Ḥasan (d. ca. 392/1001–1002), ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, was a well-known Sufi author who lived in Shīrāz during the 4th/10th century. Little is known about his life. It is only by indirect evidence that we can affirm that he was related to the Daylamī families who, in the first half of the 4th/10th century during the reign of the Būyids, migrated from northern Iran southward and settled particularly in the region of Fārs. It is probable, therefore, that he was born in the first half of the 4th/10th century (Rūzbihān Baqlī, Abhar, Persian introd., 4–5, ibid., French introd.,…
Date: 2018-09-19

Dayn

(5,622 words)

Author(s): Jamshid Shiri
Dayn (debt, liability), in the sense of giving or taking a loan or being indebted to someone (al-Jawharī, 5/2117). The word dayn literally means the balance of a loan or the price owed for a commodity; while the word does not literally apply to a dowry ( mahr) or a usurped item of property ( ghaṣb), it is also used in Islamic law to cover these situations. This is because of their resemblance to a loan in that they create an obligation ( dhimma) or debt that must be fulfilled (see al-Fīrūzābādī, 4/320). In short, it can be said that any loan with a specified period of time is called a dayn, while a loan …
Date: 2018-09-19

Dayṣāniyya

(5,823 words)

Author(s): Sharafoddin Khorasani | Stephen Hirtenstein
Dayṣāniyya (Syriac, Ḍayṣānāyē), a religious group that was formed around the teachings of the Syrian Christian philosopher, theologian, musician and poet Bar Dayṣān (Dīṣān) (d. 222 CE), known as Bardaiṣan in modern scholarship, Bardesanes (Latin) or Ibn Dayṣān (Arabic). Bar Dayṣān’s thought seems, like his contemporaries Origen and Clement, to have been one of the first syntheses of Christian teaching and Greek philosophy (Ramelli, Bardaisan, 10).Little is known about Bar Dayṣān’s biography, as our main sources—accounts found in Christian heresiographies writ…
Date: 2018-09-19

Death

(3,218 words)

Author(s): Faramarz Haj Manouchehri | Stephen Hirtenstein
In the Qurʾān and ḤadīthGiven the natural fears and rituals surrounding death, it is not surprising that the Qurʾān, as a book of guidance and instruction, should pay so much attention to the place of death in human life. Perhaps more than any other religion, Islam provides graphic details of what comes after death, in terms of the Day of Resurrection ( yawm al-qiyāma) and the afterlife ( maʿād, ākhira), beginning with the soul’s sojourn in the Isthmus ( barzakh, q.v.) up until its Final Judgement and entry into Paradise or Hell. Since in Islam death represents not a termi…
Date: 2018-09-19

Deccan

(7,652 words)

Author(s): Huda Seyyed Hussein-zadeh
Deccan, a historical region in the south of the Indian Subcontinent, the bulk of which is today situated within the state of Maharashtra, with parts also located in Hyderabad, Telangana and Karnataka (Joshi, ‘Historical Geography’, 3; Bosworth, 181).The name ‘Deccan’ appears in the two Sanskrit epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, in the form ‘Dakshiṇaptha’ and ‘Dakshiṇa’, originally meaning the district, land or state of the south, alluding to the place of the rising of the Sun. Later, in Persian and Urdu, the name appears as …
Date: 2018-09-19

Delhi

(5,341 words)

Author(s): Huda Seyyed Hussein-zadeh
Delhi (Dihlī), a historical city in north India with a major modern section built in the south known as New Delhi. The capital of India, it is located at an elevation of 227 m above sea level at 28°39’ north latitude and 77°13’ east longitude.The National Capital Territory of Delhi, which occupies a total area of 1,484 km (573 sq miles), neighbours the states of Uttar Pradesh in the east, and Haryana to the north, west and south. The Aravalli highlands are in the west, while the Yamuna River (also Jumna) is in the east (Johnson, 186; for a map see Atlas of India, 150).Between 1912 and 1929, New De…
Date: 2018-09-19

Delhi Sultanate

(4,910 words)

Author(s): Huda Seyyed Hussein-zadeh | Isabel Miller
Delhi Sultanate, a militarised state in the Punjab and Duab regions of northern India dominated by a ruling class of Central Asian Turkish mamlūks or ghulāms. Based, as its name indicates, at Delhi, it dominated the northern Indian plain for two to three centuries from the beginning of the 7th/13th century and established Islam in terms of political power in the subcontinent. The foundations for the Delhi Sultanate were laid by the victories of Muʿizz al-Dīn al-Ghūrī (r. 599–602/1203–1206) in India, and the appointment …
Date: 2018-09-19

Dentistry

(7,771 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
Dentistry, the numerous references in the extant sources indicate that dentistry, like a number of other medical disciplines, enjoyed a long history in many of the regions which became part of the Islamic lands through the Muslim conquests, especially in Iran. In addition to passages in the Zend-Avesta that mention medicine and records of an ancient Iranian type of medical treatment called yamā (Elgood, A Medical, 287; Najm Ābādī, ‘Sayr’, 31, idem, Tārīkh, 829), this long history is further corroborated by some of the most important sources on medicine in Islamic Ir…
Date: 2018-09-19
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