Encyclopaedia Islamica

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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System of Transliteration of Arabic and Persian Characters

(106 words)

Consonants Short Vowels ء ʾ ز z ک k ـَــ a ب b ژ zh گ g ــُـ u پ p س s ل l ـِــ i ت t ش sh م m ث th ص ṣ ن n Long Vowels ج j ض ḍ ه h ا ى ā چ ch ط ṭ و w و ū ح ḥ ظ ẓ ی y ي ī خ kh ع ʿ د d غ gh Diphthongs ذ dh ف f ـَــ و aw ر r ق q َــ ي ay ة a; at (construct state) ال al- (article)

SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION OF ARABIC AND PERSIAN CHARACTERS

(105 words)

Consonants ء ʾ ب b پ p ت t ث th ج j چ ch ح ḥ خ kh د d ذ dh ر r ز z ژ zh س s ش sh ص ṣ ض ḍ ط ṭ ظ ẓ ع ʿ غ gh ف f ق q ک k گ g ل l م m ن n ه h و w ی y Short Vowels ـَــ a ــُـ u ـِــ i Long Vowels ا/ى ā و ū ي ī Diphthongs ـَــ و aw َــ ي ay ة a; at (construct state) ال al- (article)