Encyclopaedia Islamica

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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The Amīr Kiyāʾids of Gīlān

(7,383 words)

Author(s): Sajjadi, Sadeq | Melvin-Koushki, Matthew
The Amīr Kiyāʾids of Gīlān, this line of sayyids, also known as the Kār Kiyāʾids, ruled Gīlān for more than 300 years following the death of their eponymous founder Sayyid Amīr Kiyā in 763/1362. They held in particular the territory to the east of the Sapīd-rūd (i.e., Biyahpīsh in eastern Gīlān). One of the ancestors of Sayyid Amīr Kiyā (d. 763/1362), was Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan (Ḥusayn) b. Aḥmad al-ʿAqīqī al-Kawkabī, who ruled Zanjān, Abhar and Qazwīn in the time of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd (251/865–253/867) (al…

The Crusades

(14,212 words)

Author(s): Taheri, Abdullah Naseri | Asatryan, Mushegh
Causes The Islamic World In the second half of the 5th/11th century, on the eve of the First Crusade, the greater part of the Islamic world was divided between the Sunni ʿAbbāsid and Shiʿi Fāṭimid caliphates, based respectively in Baghdad and Cairo. ʿAbbāsid authority had been on the wane for over a hundred years and by then was largely a mere formality, as would soon be demonstrated by their inability to respond effectively to the Crusader campaigns (Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil