Encyclopaedia of Judaism

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Subject: Jewish Studies

General Editors: Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck and William Scott Green

The Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online offers more than 200 entries comprising more than 1,000,000 words and is a unique reference tool.  The Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online offers an authoritative, comprehensive, and systematic presentation of the current state of scholarship on fundamental issues of Judaism, both past and present. While heavy emphasis is placed on the classical literature of Judaism and its history, the Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online also includes principal entries on circumcision, genetic engineering, homosexuality, intermarriage in American Judaism, and other acutely contemporary issues. Comprehensive and up-to-date, it reflects the highest standards in scholarship. Covering a tradition of nearly four thousand years, some of the most distinguished scholars in the field describe the way of life, history, art, theology, philosophy, and the practices and beliefs of the Jewish people.

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Eastern Europe, Practice of Judaism in

(7,236 words)

Author(s): Nadler, Allan
Eastern Europe—Poland and Lithuania in particular—was, for many centuries, the domain of the largest and most important Jewish settlement in the world, a community that fashioned a distinctive and particularly intense form of traditional Jewish learning and religious practice. Jews first settled in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the twelfth century. From the second half of the fifteenth century until the Second World War, the Jewish population of Eastern Europe rose steadily and prod…

Ecology in Ancient Judaism

(8,370 words)

Author(s): Hütterman, Aloys
Ancient Israel is a well documented example of a sustained society. Archaeological records show that the Israelites were the first example in world history of a society that succeeded in managing a sustained management of their environment for about thousand and seven hundred years. After the beginning of Iron Age II (about the twelfth century b.c.e.), the oscillating pattern of settlement, recorded from the late Chalcolithic period throughout the Bronze Age, (1) was replaced by a continuous settlement at a high population density of the region until the seventh century c.e. that was…

Economics, Judaism and

(10,748 words)

Author(s): Don, Yehuda
In the opening passage of an essay on the relationship between economics and religion, Jacob Katz writes, (24) “Economics in its widest sense, i.e., efforts to satisfy human material needs, and religion as an expression of the spiritual, the metaphysical meaning of human life, require, prima facie, two separate arenas, and it is not inevitable that any contact between them evolve.” Katz, for his part, rejects such a simplistic notion of the discontinuity between economics and religion for …