Encyclopaedia of Judaism

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Subject: Jewish Studies

General Editors: Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck and William Scott Green

The Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online offers more than 200 entries comprising more than 1,000,000 words and is a unique reference tool.  The Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online offers an authoritative, comprehensive, and systematic presentation of the current state of scholarship on fundamental issues of Judaism, both past and present. While heavy emphasis is placed on the classical literature of Judaism and its history, the Encyclopaedia of Judaism Online also includes principal entries on circumcision, genetic engineering, homosexuality, intermarriage in American Judaism, and other acutely contemporary issues. Comprehensive and up-to-date, it reflects the highest standards in scholarship. Covering a tradition of nearly four thousand years, some of the most distinguished scholars in the field describe the way of life, history, art, theology, philosophy, and the practices and beliefs of the Jewish people.

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Khazars and Judaism

(7,626 words)

Author(s): Brook, Kevin Alan
The Khazars (called Kuzarim in Hebrew and Kazarn in Yiddish) were a civilized, semi-nomadic Turkic-speaking people who founded an independent kingdom in about the year 652 in southern Russia near the Caspian Sea. Before the establishment of Khazaria, the Khazars appear to have lived in the Terek and Sulak river valleys of the northern Caucasus for several centuries, but their earliest history is still …

Kingdom of Heaven

(9,163 words)

Author(s): Neusner, Jacob
“The Kingdom of Heaven” in Rabbinic Judaism is one way of referring to God's dominion. It stands for a collection of related notions, God is King, God rules, God exercises dominion, God's politics govern, God commands and Israel obeys, Israelites are God's slaves, and so on. The language provides a way of referring to those integrated conceptions. That it is a ubiquitous notion is proved self-evident by the formulation of the Qaddish, which beseeches the prompt advent of “his Kingdom.” How is the Kingdom of Heaven Defined The task is, first to show that “Kingdom of God” and “Kingdom of Heaven” are synonymous and that the usages of the Aggadic writings are accurately portrayed in treating the two formulations as equivalent in all material ways. The evidence is abundant. “Heaven” routinely refers to God, and Kingdom of Heaven means, “Kingdom of God,” as in the following examples of Tractate Abot: 1:3 A. Antigonos of Sokho received [the Torah] from Simeon the Righteous. He would say, (1) Do not be like servants who serve the master on condition of receiving a reward, (2) but [be] like servants who serve the master not on condition of receiving a reward. (3) And let the fear of Heaven be upon you…