Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Baby Talk

(6 words)

see Caretaker Talk

Backing

(5 words)

see Vowel Lowering

Badal

(6 words)

see Apposition ; ʾIbdāl

Baghdad Arabic

(5,315 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction 1.1 Baghdad, the capital and the seat of government and financial operations, is situated on the river Tigris in the center of Iraq. In 2003 it was estimated that its population exceeded five million inhabitants, 60…

Baghdad Arabic Jewish

(5,855 words)

Author(s): Jacob Mansour
1. General 1.1 Speakers …

Bahraini Arabic

(9,469 words)

Author(s): Clive Holes
1. General 1.1 Area …

Bambara

(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dinie Bouwman
1. Bambara and Arabic Bambara is the largest language family of the Mande group (Niger-Congo family). From the 19th century onward, Bambara gained influence in the region as lingua franca of trade and army, and, through Bambara-speakers, in French administration and education. It is now the predominant lingua franca in Mali and Eastern Senegal, and it is also spoken in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Sierra Leone (Baldi 1992:1–3), by a total of approximately 10 million or more people as first (around 2.8 million) or second language (<www.ethnologue.com>). In the 1st millennium C…

Bangladesh

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Ali Riaz
Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 after a lengthy nationalist movement which emphasized the linguistic identity of the Bengali population of the eastern part of Pakistan. The ethnic homogeneity of the population (about 98 percent of the people are Bengalis and speak Bengali), the low level of literacy, and the linguistic nationalism that inspired the population during the nationalist era have all helped to minimize the use of any other languages in public life. During the Pakistani era (1947–1971) the introduction of Urdu as the sole state language and the government's i…

B (Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir - bāṭin)

(1,811 words)

Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir Indonesia Baalbaki, Munir Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries Baalbaki, Ramzi ʾAṣl, Bināʾ, Exclamation, Grammatical Tradition: Approach, Grammatical Tradition: Approach, ʾIʿrāb, Qirāʾāt, Ṣarf, Sound Symbolism, South Arabian Loanwords, Taʿaddin, Tamyīz, Taqdīr, Baalbaki, Rohi Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries Baars, Bernard Slips of the Tongue, Speech Errors Baath Ethnicity and Language Baâziz Europe bāb ʾAṣl Bab al-Mandeb Djibouti/Eritrea Baba, Ahmad Mali, Yoruba Baba, Mamoudou Cameroon Arabic Babatorun Antiochia Arabic Babault, Sophie Language Policies and Language Planning babbling First Language Acquisition, Reduplication Babel Nationalism and Language, Nationalism and Language Babikian, Salem Religion and Language Babtī, ʿAzīza Passive (Syntax) baby talk Caretaker Talk, Reduplication, Register, Sound Symbolism, Speech Accommodation baby talk → caretaker talk Babylonian Gulf States, Semitic Languages, Thamudic Babylonian, Old Northwest Arabian Arabic, Pseudodual Baccouche, Taieb Tunis Arabic, Tunisia …

B (Bung - Bzoch, Kenneth R.)

(213 words)

Bung Cameroon Arabic Bunnags Thai Bura West Sudanic Arabic Buraymi Arabic Omani Arabic Burchardt, Bishop Malta Burckhardt, John Lewis Najdi Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic Bureng, George Vincent Juba Arabic Burg Miġīzil Educated Arabic Burger, S. First Language Acquisition Burgess, James Transcription …

Bedouin Arabic

(5,610 words)

Author(s): Judith Rosenhouse
1. Introduction …

Bedouinization

(3,931 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction …

Beirut Arabic

(6,303 words)

Author(s): Samia Naïm
1. General Remarks Beirut has a population of 1,500,000 people. The country's oldest urban communities are the …

Bengali

(2,157 words)

Author(s): James M. Wilce
Ask Bangladeshis what divides Muslim from Hindu speech and they will mention pani (vs. jɔl) ‘water’. This favorite index actually derives from Sanskrit. Yet, the ‘Muslim’ valeur of pani is a social fact. Such facts warrant attention to ideological representations of ‘Perso-Arabic’ lexemes in Bengali – and suggest that lists of loanwords require reanalysis in terms of ideologies. 1. Semantic domains The semantic categories of Arabic loanwords in Bengali reve…

Berber

(2,440 words)

Author(s): Jorge Aguadé
1. Arabic and Berber At the end of the 7th century, when the first Arabs came to Morocco during the Islamic conquests, Berber was the dominant language in Northern Africa with the exception of some Latinized towns on the Mediterranean coast, whose inhabitants were Romance speakers. After the Islamic conquests, the …

Berber Loanwords

(3,915 words)

Author(s): Abderrahman El Aissati
1. A brief history of Berber/Arabic contacts …