Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(7 words)

Author(s): not-specified
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(7 words)

Author(s): not-specified
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Baghdad Arabic

(5,315 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction 1.1 Baghdad, the capital and the seat of government and financial operations, is situated on the river Tigris in the center of Iraq. In 2003 it was estimated that its population exceeded five million inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are Shiʿi. The rest are mainly Sunni, with a Christian minority comprising Chaldean Catholics, Assyrians (Orthodox and Catholics), and a small number of Greek Catholics and Protestants. The number of Mandeans, another religious minority, has decreased to fewer than two thousa…

Baghdad Arabic Jewish

(5,855 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. General 1.1 Speakers Jewish Baghdad Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Lower Iraq. The dialects spoken by Jews in Upper Iraq, such as in ʿAna and Mosul, differ in some aspects from that of Baghdad. The Jews spoke Jewish Baghdadi at home and with members of their community, but with Muslims they used the Muslim dialect or Classical Arabic. Jewish Baghdadi was also used abroad, in Jewish Baghdadian communities established in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th …

Bahraini Arabic

(9,469 words)

Author(s): Clive Holes
1. General 1.1 Area Bahrain is an archipelago (552 square kilometers) halfway between the head of the Gulf and the Straits of Hormuz, 20 kilometers off the coast of Saudi Arabia. In 1999 the population was approximately 660,000, of whom 402,000 were Bahrain nationals. Its dialects are of two types: those of the so-called ʿArab (lit. ‘ Arabs’, henceforth ‘A’), and those of the Baḥārna (lit. ‘Bahrain-dwellers’, henceforth ‘B’). The A community, which includes the ruling family, and is Sunni, traces its origin to Najd. The B, ‘Twelver’ Shiʿi, and outnumbering the A by about two to…


(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dinie Bouwman
1. Bambara and Arabic Bambara is the largest language family of the Mande group (Niger-Congo family). From the 19th century onward, Bambara gained influence in the region as lingua franca of trade and army, and, through Bambara-speakers, in French administration and education. It is now the predominant lingua franca in Mali and Eastern Senegal, and it is also spoken in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Sierra Leone (Baldi 1992:1–3), by a total of approximately 10 million or more people as first (around 2.8 million) or second language (<www.ethnologue.com>). In the 1st millennium C…


(1,204 words)

Author(s): Ali Riaz
Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 after a lengthy nationalist movement which emphasized the linguistic identity of the Bengali population of the eastern part of Pakistan. The ethnic homogeneity of the population (about 98 percent of the people are Bengalis and speak Bengali), the low level of literacy, and the linguistic nationalism that inspired the population during the nationalist era have all helped to minimize the use of any other languages in public life. During the Pakistani era (1947–1971) the introduction of Urdu as the sole state language and the government's i…

B (Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir - bāṭin)

(1,811 words)

Bā ʿAlwī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-ʿAllāma aṭ-Ṭāhir Indonesia Baalbaki, Munir Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries Baalbaki, Ramzi ʾAṣl, Bināʾ, Exclamation, Grammatical Tradition: Approach, Grammatical Tradition: Approach, ʾIʿrāb, Qirāʾāt, Ṣarf, Sound Symbolism, South Arabian Loanwords, Taʿaddin, Tamyīz, Taqdīr, Baalbaki, Rohi Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries Baars, Bernard Slips of the Tongue, Speech Errors Baath Ethnicity and Language Baâziz Europe bāb ʾAṣl Bab al-Mandeb Djibouti/Eritrea Baba, Ahmad Mali, Yoruba Baba, Mamoudou Cameroon Arabic Babatorun Antiochia …

B (Bāṭina - bilingualism, Persian/Arabic)

(1,951 words)

Bāṭina Omani Arabic Bāṭina Arabic Omani Arabic, Omani Arabic, Omani Arabic, Omani Arabic Bāṭina Coast Gulf States Batman Arabic Kuwaiti Arabic Battenburg, John Language Shift: Amazigh Battersby, Harold K. Turkish Battisti, Carlo Italian Loanwords Baudelaire, Charles Šiʿr Bauer, Gertrud Ḥaraka, Lisān Bauer, Hans Northwest Arabian Arabic Bauer, Leonhard Jerusalem Arabic, Jordan, Northwest Arabian Arabic Bauer, Thomas Majāz Bausani, Alessandro Ḍidd, Indonesian/Malay, Tamil Bawīṭi Arabic Educated Arabic Bāwiyah Khuzestan Arabic Bawwāb, al- Root Baxʿa Aramaic/Syriac Loan…

B (bilingualism, Romance/Arabic - Būlus, Jawād)

(1,844 words)

bilingualism, Romance/Arabic Ibero-Romance Loanwords, Sicily bilingualism, Sindhi/Arabic India, Language Contact bilingualism, South Arabian/Arabic Language Contact, Lingua Franca bilingualism, Uzbek/Tajik Uzbek bilinguals Code-switching, Diglossia biliteral → biradical Biliy Arabic Northwest Arabian Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic, Sinai Arabic, Vowel Harmony …

B (Bung - Bzoch, Kenneth R.)

(213 words)

Bung Cameroon Arabic Bunnags Thai Bura West Sudanic Arabic Buraymi Arabic Omani Arabic Burchardt, Bishop Malta Burckhardt, John Lewis Najdi Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic Bureng, George Vincent Juba Arabic Burg Miġīzil Educated Arabic Burger, S. First Language Acquisition Burgess, James Transcription Burkina Faso Bambara Burridge, Kate Dysphemism, Dysphemism, Euphemism Burriel, Andres Marcos Andalus burst Affrication Burt, Marina Second Language Acquisition Burton, John Qirāʾāt, Qurʾān Burton, Richard F. Somalia Burton-Page, J. India Burton-Roberts, Noel Apposition Burullus Educated Arabic Burullus Arabic Educated Arabic Burundi East Africa, Swahili Burykina, N. Uzbekistan Arabic Burzio’s Generalization Theta Roles Busa Songhay Būsayrī, Murtaḍā Nigeria Busīrī, ʾAbū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan al- Acehnese, Ethiopia, Indonesia Busse, Heribert Proper Names Bussmann, Hadumod Interjection …


(3,931 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction …

Beirut Arabic

(6,303 words)

Author(s): Samia Naïm
1. General Remarks …


(2,440 words)

Author(s): Jorge Aguadé
1. Arabic and Berber At the end of the 7th century, when the first Arabs came to Morocco during the Islamic conquests, Berber was the dominant language in Northern Africa with the exception of some Latinized towns on the Mediterranean coast, whose inhabitants were Romance speakers. After the Islamic conquests, the Arabization of the population seems to have been superficial and limited to the major towns. It was only after the arrival of the Arab tribes of the Banū Hilāl and Banū Sulaym in the 12th century that Arabization progressed in the Maghreb (Colin 1986:1193–1194). Mo…

Berber Loanwords

(3,915 words)

Author(s): Abderrahman El Aissati
1. A brief history of Berber/Arabic contacts …

Bʿēri Arabic

(5,132 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. General …