Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(1,258 words)

Author(s): Kees Versteegh
The interpretation of the ḍād as a lateral(ized) sound is in line with the reconstruction of the phonemic inventory of the Semitic languages. According to Lipiński (1997:129–132) Arabic /ḍ/ goes back to Proto-Semitic /ṣ/, which he reconstructs as [ɬ], the voiced counterpart of Proto-Semitic /ś/. The latter soon merged with Proto-Semitic /š/ and is not differentiated in most Semitic languages. Reflexes of Proto-Semitic /ṣ/ are still pronounced as a voiced (non- emphatic) lateral /ź/ in Modern South Arabian. It is not surprising that this special sound disappeared in the Ne…

Damascus Arabic

(6,050 words)

Author(s): Jérôme Lentin
1. General Damascus Arabic ( llahže ššāmiyye) is spoken in Damascus, capital of the Syrian Arab Republic (1.6 million people in 2004; 3.5 million including Greater Damascus, with an important proportion of non-native speakers: immigrants from various parts of the country, Palestinians). In the old villages of the surrounding Ġūṭa different dialects are spoken, which have not yet been studied. Damascus Arabic is well understood in the whole country, and in Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine. Contiguous to the Damascus area are the Qalamūn dialects in the north, the Ḥōrān di…


(3,170 words)

Author(s): Yishai Peled
The pronominal system is normally presented as composed of three persons: mutakallim (1st person), muxāṭab (2nd person), and āʾib (3rd person). The pronouns change form according to case. A genitival ( jarr) pronoun can only be realized as a suffix attached ( muttaṣil) to a noun, as in ʾaxū-ka ‘your brother’. In the nominative and accusative, by contrast, it can be realized either as a separate independent word ( munfaṣil), or as muttaṣil. In the latter case, the pronoun may either have a morphological realization, as is the case with the suffix -ka in ḍaraba-ka ‘he hit you’, or otherwis…


(5 words)

see Mafʿūl fīhi

D (Derendiger, R. - ditransitive)

(1,883 words)

Derendiger, R. Lingua Franca, Pidgin Arabic: Bongor Arabic derivation ʾAṣl, Biradicalism, Compounds, Derivation, First Language Acquisition, Glide, Inflection, Ištiqāq, Minimalism, Morphology, Noun, Root, Ṣarf, Terminology, Verb, Verb, Verb derivation, acquisition of First Language Acquisition derivation, crashing of Minimalism derivation, formal Derivation derivation, pattern Derivation derived Form Fiʿl, South Semitic Languages, Verb derived stem South Semitic Languages derived structure Transformational Grammar Derman, M. Ugur Nastaʿlīq, Ruqʿa, Second…

D (Ditters, Everhard - Dzhalil, Ordikhane)

(950 words)

Ditters, Everhard Computational Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Maṣdar, Noun Phrase, Second Language Teaching, Verbal Noun divergence Convergence, Convergence, Grammaticalization, Grammaticalization, History of Arabic divergence of speech Speech Accommodation dīwān Palaeography dīwānī Ruqʿa, Script and Art Dixit, R. Prakash Voice (Phonetics) Diyāb, Maḥmūd Dialect Literature Diyarbakır Anatolian Arabic, Anatolian Arabic, Anatolian Arabic Diyarbakır Arabic Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Dialects: Classification, Iraq, Relative Pronoun (Arabic Dialects) Djajadinin…

D (/ḍ/, lateral - Dereli, Belgin)

(1,631 words)

/ḍ/, lateral Andalusi Arabic D’Andrea, Daniel Language Loss daanu leer Senegal daara Senegal, Senegal dabba Abbreviations Dabba Arabic Luġa, Pre-Islamic Arabic ḍabṭ Muḥaqqaq ḍād Ḍād, Hausa, Majhūra/Mahmūsa, Mechanisms of Linguistic Change, Phonetics, Phonological Merger, Semitic Languages, Somali, South Semitic Languages, Tamil, Yemen ḍād ḍaʿīfa Ḍād ḍād, luġat aḍ- Ḍād Dadan Old Arabic (Epigraphic), Thamudic, Thamudic Dadanitic Northwest Arabian Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic, Old Arabic (Epigraphic), Old Arabic (Epigraphic), Thamudic, Thamudic Ḏ̣afīr Najdi Arab…


(2,656 words)

Author(s): Lutz Edzard
1. Definition In general, declension affects the nouns, adjectives, articles, numerals, and pronouns of a language (as opposed to


(2,990 words)

Author(s): Mihai Dat
1. Definition …

Dependency Grammar

(5,322 words)

Author(s): Domenyk Eades
Overview Dependency Grammar is an approach to the analysis of sentence structure that is represented by numerous theoretical frameworks in modern linguistics. It is based on concepts which have a long pedigree in the study of grammar, and are prominent in medieval Arabic grammatical theory. Dependency Grammar is based on the concept of the “dependency structure”, where a dominant word – the ‘head’ – is directly linked to one or more ‘dependents’ in an a…


(4,491 words)

Author(s): Pierre Larcher
1. Introduction …


(2,055 words)

Author(s): Lina Choueiri
(1) ʾarā ʾanna l-ʾasada ḥayawān-u-n think.1s that the-lion.acc animal.nom …