Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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ʾIbdāl

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila
ʾIbdāl or badal ‘permutation’ is a term used for two distinct phenomena in Arabic linguistics. ʾIbdāl naḥwī ‘grammatical ʾibdāl’ refers to certain, mainly morphophonological, changes in verbs, nouns, and particles, whereas ʾibdāl luġawī ‘lexical ʾibdāl’ refers to phonologically and semantically related doublets, triplets, or longer series in the lexicon. In both cases, only consonants (as defined by Arab grammarians, i.e. including the ‘weak consonants’ w, y, ʾalif) are concerned; variation of short vowels is not called ʾibdāl
Date: 2018-04-01

Ibero-Romance

(3,178 words)

Author(s): Reinhard Kiesler
1. Introduction The multifarious contacts between Arabic and Ibero-Romance have led to prolific cultural exchange. The linguistic aspect of this exchange materializes as mutual influence between different varieties of Arabic and the Ibero-Romance languages and dialects. Arabic loanwords are defined as ‘words introduced directly from Arabic into another language’. The superordinate term is Arabism, “an Arabic word or meaning introduced into another language, or a typical Arabic syntagm imitated in another language” (Kiesler 1994:44), e.g. Spanish azúcar
Date: 2018-04-01

Ibero-Romance Loanwords

(2,240 words)

Author(s): Federico Corriente
1. Language contacts between Arabic and Romance At the beginning of the 8th century, armies of Muslim Arabs and somewhat Arabicized Berbers invaded the Iberian Peninsula. The lexical interference of Ibero-Romance with Arabic was the unavoidable consequence of contacts between these armies, who imported Arabic dialects, and the local inhabitants, who spoke Proto-Romance dialects derived from Low Latin. The invaders succeeded in creating a new geopolitical entity, soon called al-Andalus by its mixed population. The guest language obviously occupied a dominating position in the ensuing situatio…
Date: 2018-04-01

Ibtidāʾ

(2,569 words)

Author(s): Chakri Iraqi-Houssaini
Ibtidāʾ is the term used in the Arabic grammatical tradition for the commencement of an utterance by putting a noun in the initial position. The notion of ibtidāʾ is used in two main domains of the Arabic language sciences, grammar and Qurʾān reading. In grammar, it is used in governance ( ʿamal) theory and in sentence grammar ( naḥw al-jumal). It is an ambiguous notion that was much disputed in the Arabic grammatical tradition. While it is still used in school programs and in university departments of Arabic, the notion of ibtidāʾ plays hardly any role in modern linguistic approaches…
Date: 2018-04-01

ʾIḍāfa

(3,383 words)

Author(s): Karin C. Ryding
1. The ʾiḍāfa in the Arabic linguistic tradition Two Arabic nouns may be linked together in a noun phrase in such a way that the second noun in the sequence determines the first by limiting, identifying, possessing, defining, or amplifying it. The two nouns in this phrase function as a closely knit syntactic unit. In Arabic grammatical terminology, this structure is referred to as ʾiḍāfa ‘annexation; addition’; the first noun in the structure is muḍāf ‘annexed’ to the second noun, which is the muḍāf ʾilay-hi lit. ‘the added-to (or ‘annexing’) noun’. The annexing noun is in the …
Date: 2018-04-01

ʾIdġām

(1,353 words)

Author(s): Janusz Danecki
The term ʾidġām (or iddiġām) lit. ‘insertion’ denotes in Arabic phonetics different types of assimilatory processes (assimilation), which lead either to gemination (prolongation) of consonants or their change. The term ʾidġām was used by the Kufan school of grammar, whereas iddiġām is said to have been used by Sībawayhi and the Basrans (Suyūṭī, Hamʿ II, 225 quoting Ibn Ḥayyān). In fact, Troupeau (1976) has a total of 217 occurrences for the verb ʾadġama in the Kitāb and 141 for the masdar ʾidġām; iddaġama occurs once, in the passive (Sībawayhi, Kitāb I, 386.12 ʾanna n-nūn qad tuddaġamu…
Date: 2018-04-01

Idioms

(5,516 words)

Author(s): Ludmila Torlakova
  The term “idiom” has generally been used to cover both (1) fixed, irregular, and grammatical constructions in principle peculiar to a given language (e.g. “catch fire”, “make a comeback”, “by and large”, “to good effect”) and (2) widely accepted collocations in one or more languages whose meaning at times cannot be deduced, or not readily deduced, from the literal meanings of their components (e.g. “kick the bucket”, “red herring”, “bite the bullet”) but whose meaning is most often nonetheless …
Date: 2018-04-01

ʾIḍmār

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Carter
Although the term ʾiḍmār lit. ‘keeping in mind’ sometimes occurs interchangeably with ḥaḏf ‘elision’, it represents an entirely different phenomenon. Whereas ḥaḏf denotes an omission at the surface level, as a purely phonological event that leaves the utterance formally incomplete, ʾiḍmār refers to the mental act of suppressing an element at what might now be called the deep-structure level, independent of any phonological realization, and not necessarily producing a formally incomplete utterance (ellipsis). Moreover, it is a feature of ʾiḍmār that, unlike ḥaḏf, only complete…
Date: 2018-04-01