Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Pakistan

(639 words)

Author(s): Tariq Rahman
Tariq Rahman Bibliography Census. 1951. Census of Pakistan, 1951. I. Reports and tables, E.H. Slade. Karachi: Manager of Publications, Government of Pakistan. Census. 1961. Census of Pakistan Population, 1961. I. Pakistan, A. Rashid. Karachi: Ministry of Home and Kashmir Affairs, Government of Pakistan. Census. 1998. Census report of Pakistan

Palaeography

(6,079 words)

Author(s): Petra M. Sijpesteijn
1. Introduction The very first verses that were revealed to the Prophet Muḥamm…

Palestinian Arabic

(6,658 words)

Author(s): Kimary N. Shahin
1. General 1.1 Area Palestinian Arabic is spoken in Palestine (Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip; see Map 1). As more than 50 percent of Palestinians live elsewhere, it is also spoken around the world.   1.2 Speakers Palestinian Arabic is a native language to approximately 8.5 million people. The lifestyles in the dialect area are urban, rural, Bedouin, and Gypsy. In 1948 and 1967, when the State of Israel was formed and expanded on Palestinian land, many rural families resettled in towns and cities, so the number of speakers with a…

Parataxis

(5 words)

see Sentence Coordination

Participle

(3,150 words)

Author(s): Jonathan Owens
1. Common structures 1.1 Morphology Morphologically, both active and passive participles are regularly derived from a verb. The active/passive participles have the form fāʿil/mafʿūl in the basic form, and and in the derived forms they essentially have m

Passive

(3,113 words)

Author(s): Vít Bubeník
1. Morphology …

Passive (Syntax)

(3,103 words)

Author(s): Amira Agameya
1. Structural properties of the passive An active sentence changes into the passive by undergoing a number of structural changes. First, the subject of the sentence is deleted. Second, the object becomes the subject of the sentence and receives nominative case. Third, the active verb changes into the passive by changing its vowels, the change being dependent upon the tense or type of the verb, as described below. Fourth, the verb agrees in person and gender with the new subject in the Verb-Subject order and in person, gender, and number in the Subject-Verb order. (1) našara l-kātib-u publis…

Pathology

(5 words)

see Language Pathology

Pausal Forms

(4,478 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
1. Introduction A pausal form is the form a word has at the end of a sentence or major phrase or before a pause or stop in the speech flow ( waqf), if that is different from the form it takes in the beginning or middle of a phrase. In Classical and Modern Standard Arabic, most words have different pausal and medial forms. Phonetic pausal phenomena probably occur in all languages, although they may differ from language to language, but morphologically conditioned pausal changes are much rarer, and they are the ones most often …

Performatives

(1,986 words)

Author(s): Mustafa Mughazy
The motivation for the distinction between performatives and statements is that the former constitute events rather than descriptions of events or states of affairs (Searle 1969, 1971). In other words, the act of uttering a performative is itself the action purported by the speaker. For example, the performative utterance in (1), when issued by a lawyer in the context of a court session, amounts to registering an objection rather than reporting or describing an event of objecting taking place at speech time. (1) ʾana ʾa-ʿtariḍ I 1s-object ‘I object!’ The major difference between per…

Persian

(4,463 words)

Author(s): John R. Perry
1. History and evolution With the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century and the conversion of a majority of the population to Islam, Arabic came to exert a profound influence on the Persian language. The form of Persian affected was not literary Middle Persian ( pårsīk, commonly called Pahlavi), which was identified with Zoroastrian religious literature and written in a form of the Aramaic script, but rather the related vernacular of the court milieu of Seleucia-Ctesiphon ( Madāʾin) and other parts of the Persian Empire, called Dari by Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (see Lazard 1990). By the mid…

Persian Loanwords

(2,683 words)

Author(s): Asya Asbaghi
In the pre-Islamic period, Arabs and Persians had some contact in border areas of the Arabian Peninsula. There were, for example, the Lakhmids, who were in the service of Sassanian Persia and secured the border against invasions from Bedouin tribes from the desert. Almost half a century before the advent of Islam, Yemen came under the rule of Sassanians and Persian governors, who ruled there even after the advent of Islam. These contacts had linguistic implications, and we find a comparatively l…

Personal Pronoun (Arabic Dialects)

(2,862 words)

Author(s): not-specified
1. Independent personal pronouns The various paradigms may be grouped into three categories, according to types of dialects: Bedouin dialects, without geographical distinction, and sedentary dialects, both Eastern and Western. The forms of the independent personal pronouns for each of the three categories are given in Table 1. Table 1. Independent personal pronouns in three types of dialects: Bedouin (Rosenhouse 1984:17–18), Cairo (Jomier and Khouzam 1977:36), and Moroccan koine (Caubet 1993:I, 159) Free pronouns Bedouin Eastern sedentary Western sedentary 1 comm. sg. ani, ān…

Personal Pronoun (Standard Arabic)

(3,279 words)

Author(s): David L. Appleyard
Pronouns in Arabic exhibit the usual three persons: 1st person or speaker(s), 2nd person or addressee(s), and 3rd person or the subject of discourse, i.e. the person(s) or thing(s) spoken about. In Arabic, the 1st person has only two number forms, a singular and a nonsingular (i.e. dual and plural), and does not distinguish gender. The other persons all distinguish three numbers, singular, dual, and plural, and two genders, masculine and feminine, except in the dual. This gives Standard Arabic a…