Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(4,476 words)

Author(s): Zeinab Ahmed Taha
1. Definition The Arabic verb taʿaddā and its derivatives mutaʿaddin and taʿdiya express the lexical concept of something going beyond something else. These terms are used by Arabic grammarians to refer to the concept of transitivity (for a general treatment of transitivity in Arabic grammar, see Owens 1988:167–172; Taha 1995). In the linguistic sense, the verb is said to go beyond its agent (fāʿil) to an object (mafʿūl). Verbs whose action goes beyond their agents to their direct objects are called transitive ( mutaʿaddin); verbs whose action does not go beyond the agent to a…


(3,431 words)

Author(s): Avihai Shivtiel
1. Introduction Originally from the Tongan language, which belongs to the Polynesian group of languages, the word ‘ taboo’ was first introduced into English in 1777 by the naval explorer Captain James Cook (1728–1779), and later entered other European languages. The concept refers to anything sacred and inviolable and later, by extension, to anything that is in contradiction to moral standards or good manners and is, therefore, forbidden or prohibited. ‘Taboo language’ refers to words and expressions that may cau…


(1,788 words)

Author(s): Muhammad Hasan Bakalla
The term mufaxxama or tafxīm is used more frequently than mustaʿliya in treatises on Qurʾānic recitation (tajwīd). The contrast between mustaʿliya or mufaxxama and mustafila or munxafiḍa is rendered by many modern phoneticians as emphatic vs. nonemphatic speech sounds. In their analysis, tafxīm or emphasis may involve more processes than Figure 1. Features of emphatic vs. nonemphatic consonants FEATURES q x ġ ṣ ḍ ṭ ḏ̣ ʾ h ʿ ḥ k š y j s z d t l r n ḏ t̲ f b w m consonantal + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + vocalic - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - voiced (+) - + - + (+) + o - + - - - + + - + + - + + + + - - + + + voiceless -…


(1,118 words)

Author(s): John R. Perry
Until the early 20th century, there was little difference in the style and vocabulary of Persian as written in Iran, Central Asia, or India. After the Bolshevik revolution in Bukhara (1920) and the creation of the Tajik SSR, a literary language called Tajik, based on vernacular Persian of Central Asia and written in a Latin alphabet (from 1928), then a Cyrillic alphabet (from 1939), was fostered as the language of the Soviet nationality of the Tajiks. (The term Tåjik, derived from the Middle Persian Tāzīk ‘Arab’, was an ethnonym distinguishing Persian speakers from Turks – spec…


(2,159 words)

Author(s): Kristina Nelson
1. Definition and material of tajwīd Tajwīd is the system of rules regulating the correct and clear rendering of the Qurʾān, preserving the nature of a religious revelation whose meaning is expressed as much by its sound as by its content and expression. Muslims believe that tajwīd is the codification of the sound of the revelation as it was revealed to the Prophet Muḥammad and as he subsequently rehearsed it with the Angel Gabriel. Therefore, in Islam, there can be no history of the development of tajwīd except in terms of its scholarly codification, and it is generally believed…


(1,120 words)

Author(s): Valeriy Rybalkin
Taʿlīq occurs in parenthesis rather than in initial position (Kinberg 1996:753), in a verbal expression in a sentence with the purpose of creating an obstacle. After taʿlīq, the sentence is in the syntactic position of naṣb, blocking a direct object, for example: ḥasibtu la-ʿabdullāhi qādimun ‘I considered that, necessarily, ʿAbdallāh would come’. Here, ḥasibtu is the predicate of the agent of the verbal clause. The particle la- puts the following word in the position of the topic, thereby causing the action of the governing word ḥasibtu to be blocked. Qādimun is the second object o…


(397 words)

Author(s): Jacques Grand'Henry
Sībawayhi ( Kitāb II, 256–257) contrasts two basic forms in the taltala dialects: an intransitive faʿila/yifʿalu in contrast with a transitive faʿala/yafʿalu, yafʿulu. He considers the non- taltala dialects of al-Ḥijāz as having the regular form faʿila/yafʿalu, arguing that faʿula/yafʿulu is pan-Arabic and not yufʿulu. Al-Bayḍāwī mentions a form ʿabada/yiʿbudu in the Tamīm tribe (Grand'Henry 1990:40–46). Barth's (1894) principle points to the fact that intransitive faʿila/yifʿalu and transitive faʿala/yafʿulu are forms which should be considered to date back to …


(1,361 words)

Author(s): Janusz Danecki
The category of tamakkun stands in direct relationship to the idea of xiffa/t̲iqal ‘ lightness/heaviness’. A word that is mutamakkin is at the same time xafīf ‘light’, not (yet) burdened with grammatical markers and functions but potentially ready to perform these functions. It is open to receive certain forms, such as case endings, provided they have formal markers. If the case endings are not formally marked on the surface level, the words remain ġayr mutamakkin. Yet, at the same time, they are now t̲aqīl, because they perform more than one syntactic function: the case endin…


(2,136 words)

Author(s): Torsten Tschacher
Tamil came into contact with Arabic through two different routes roughly corresponding to the routes by which Islam was transmitted to South India, although the spread of Arabic vocabulary at times occurred independently of processes of Islamization. One route involved the Arab and Persian merchants who frequented the port cities of Southeast India and Ceylon since at least the beginning of the 2nd millennium C.E., thereby giving rise to many Muslim communities along the coasts of these regions. Arabic was transmitted to Tamil-speaking a…


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Ramzi Baalbaki
Although Sībawayhi (d. 180/796) discusses tamyīz in various places of his Kitāb (I, 204–211, II, 117–119, 156–182), he does not use any particular term to refer to its function. He does, however, use verbs such as yūṣaf, ixtaṣaṣta, lam tubhim, bayyanta, yubayyin, yufassir (II, 121, 174, 176) and the noun tafsīr, but not as a technical term (II, 175–178), to describe that function. Tafsīr becomes more of a technical term with Farrāʾ (d. 207/822) and ʾAxfaš (d. 215/830; see Farrāʾ, Maʿānī I, 226, II, 138, 166; and ʾAxfaš, Maʿānī II, 395, 460). As a technical term, tamyīz is first encountered…


(2,281 words)

Author(s): Wafaa Batran
1. Definition Tanāzuʿ lit. ‘conflict’ is a syntactic phenomenon that deals with two coordinated verbs competing for assigning case to a shared constituent, as in (1). (1) [1 ḍaraba-nī] wa-[2 ḍarab-tu zayd-an] hit-me and-hit-I Zayd-Acc ‘Zaydi hit me and I hit himi’ The shared constituent (in bold) in (1) serves two distinct grammatical functions: it serves as a subject for the first verb (henceforth clause 1) and as an object for the second verb (henceforth clause 2). However, zayd-an belongs to clause 2, as it carries the accusative case, assigned under adjacency by the i…


(2,888 words)

Author(s): Georgine Ayoub
The term has been used in its technical sense since the first grammatical treatise, Sībawayhi's (d. 177/793) Kitāb. Right at the beginning of the Kitāb, tanwīn is associated with a theory about the hierarchical organization of grammatical categories, according to which some grammatical categories are ‘first’ ( ʾūlā) compared to others, e.g. the noun compared to the verb, the indefinite ( nakira) to the definite ( maʿrifa), the singular to the plural, the masculine to the feminine. These ‘first’ categories are consequently ‘lighter’ ( ʾaxaff) and ‘better established’ ( ʾašadd tamakku…


(2,835 words)

Author(s): Kees Versteegh
In the course of the development of the Arabic grammatical tradition, taqdīr came to be used for the process of restitution of suppressed elements in linguistic utterances ( pace Lane 1863–1893:VII, 2495, who derives the grammarians’ use of the word from Form II of the verb qaddara ‘to determine, decree’ and asserts that in a linguistic context it signified ‘to mean something to be supplied or understood’). In linguistic methodology, taqdīr is, therefore, the converse of ʾiḍmār. The speaker ‘hides’ things in speech, and it is the grammarian's task to reconstruct t…


(1,341 words)

Author(s): Suzanne Wertheim
Lexical reform begun by Tatar intellectuals in the late 19th century was undertaken with the aim of closing this gap between the literary language and the language of the people and promoted the use of native Turkic words in literary Tatar. Due to this reform movement, the Arabic- Persian element of texts by many authors, which at the turn of the century could be as high as 65 percent, decreased significantly (Mäχmütov 1993b:797). The number of Arabic loanwords used in Tatar was then drastically reduced by politically motivated Soviet-era lex…


(1,342 words)

Author(s): V. Swarajya Lakshmi
1. Interaction between the Arabic and Telugu speech communities Telugu belongs to the Dravidian language family. It is spoken as the major language in Andhra Pradesh in India by more than 66 million people, and speakers of the language have spread to different parts of the world. The interaction between the Arabic and Telugu speech communities began when the Muslim king Allauddin Khilji invaded the south in 1296 C.E. Later, Giasuddin Tughlak invaded the south as well (Siddiqui 1956). Although no Muslim empire had yet been established there, during the 13th century…


(8 words)

see Obligatory Contour Principle ; Morphology
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