Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(3,431 words)

Author(s): Avihai Shivtiel
1. Introduction Originally from the Tongan language, which belongs to the Polynesian group of languages, the word ‘ taboo’ was first introduced into English in 1777 by the naval explorer Captain James Cook (1728–1779), and later entered other European languages. The concept refers to anything sacred and inviolable and later, by extension, to anything that is in contradiction to moral standards or good manners and is, therefore, forbidden or prohibited. ‘Taboo language’ refers to words and expressions that may cau…


(1,118 words)

Author(s): John R. Perry
Until the early 20th cent…


(2,159 words)

Author(s): Kristina Nelson
1. Definition and material of tajwīd …


(2,136 words)

Author(s): Torsten Tschacher
Tamil came into contact with Arabic through two different routes roughly corresponding to the routes by which Islam was transmitted to South India, although the spread of Arabic vocabulary at times occurred independently of processes of Islamization. One route involved the Arab and Persian merchants who frequented the port cities of Southeast India and Ceylon since at least the beginning of the 2…


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Ramzi Baalbaki
Although Sībawayhi (d. 180/796) discusses tamyīz in various places of his Kitāb (I, 204–211, II, 117–1…


(2,281 words)

Author(s): Wafaa Batran
1. Definition …


(2,888 words)

Author(s): Georgine Ayoub
The term has been used in its technical sense since the first grammatical treatise, Sībawayhi's (d. 177/793) Kitāb. Right at the beginning of the Kitāb, tanwīn is associated with a theory about the hierarchical organization of grammatical categories, according to which some grammatical categories are ‘first’ ( ʾūlā) compared to others, e.g. the noun compared to the verb, the indefinite ( nakira) to the definite ( maʿrifa), the singular to the plural, the masculine to the feminine. These ‘first’ categories are consequently ‘lighter’ ( ʾaxaff) and ‘better established’ ( ʾašadd tamakku…


(2,835 words)

Author(s): Kees Versteegh
In the course of the development of the Arabic grammatical tradition, taqdīr came to be used for the process of restitution of suppressed elements in linguistic utterances ( pace Lane 1863–1893:VII, 2495, who derives the grammarians’ use of the word from Form II of the verb qaddara ‘to determine, decree’ and asserts that in a linguistic context it signified ‘to mean something to be supplied or understood’). In linguistic methodology, taqdīr is, therefore, the converse of ʾiḍmār. The speaker ‘hides’ things in speech, and it is the grammarian's task to reconstruct t…


(1,341 words)

Author(s): Suzanne Wertheim
Lexical reform begun by Tatar intellectuals in the late 19th century was undertaken with the aim of closing this gap between the literary language and the language of the people and promoted the use of native Turkic words in literary Tatar. Due to this reform movement, the Arabic- Persian element of texts by many authors, which at the turn of the century could be as high as 65 percent, decreased significantly (Mäχmütov 1993b:797). The number of Arabic loanwords used in Tatar was then drastically reduced by politically motivated Soviet-era lex…


(1,342 words)

Author(s): V. Swarajya Lakshmi
1. Interaction between the Arabic and Telugu speech communities Telugu belongs to the Dravidian language family. It is spoken as the major language in Andhra Pradesh in India by more than 66 million people, and speakers of the language have spread to different parts of the world. The interaction between the Arabic and Telugu speech communities began when the Muslim king Allauddin Khilji invaded the south in 1296 C.E. Later, Giasuddin Tughlak invaded the south as well (Siddiqui 1956). Although no Muslim empire had yet been established there, during the 13th century…


(8 words)

see Obligatory Contour Principle ; Morphology
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