Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Editors: Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milič Lochman, John Mbiti, Jaroslav Pelikan and Lukas Vischer

The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online describes modern-day Christian beliefs and communities in the context of 2000 years of apostolic tradition and Christian history. Based on the third, revised edition of the critically acclaimed German work Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon. The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online includes all 5 volumes of the print edition of 1999-2008 which has become a standard reference work for the study of Christianity past and present. Comprehensive, reflecting the highest standards in scholarship yet intended for a wide range of readers, the The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online also looks outward beyond Christianity, considering other world religions and philosophies as it paints the overall religious and socio-cultural picture in which the Christianity finds itself.

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Universalism, Universalists

(2,861 words)

Author(s): Hughes, Peter
Universalism, the view that all souls eventually will be saved by, reconciled with, or restored to God, has been a belief of many Christians since the time of the earliest churches. This doctrine, like Pelagianism, was such a natural way of thinking about soteriology that it has always remained an option in folk and heterodox religion. It has often been deduced from the infinite love and the overwhelming power of God. 1. History 1.1. Origins and European Development Although forms of universalism were advocated by some church fathers, including Clement of Alexandria, Orig…


(2,067 words)

Author(s): Goldschmidt, Dietrich | Vortkamp, Wolfgang | Editors, the
1. Term and Founding From the Middle Ages onward, universities have been cooperative amalgamations of teachers and students devoted to scholarship (universitas magistrorum et scholarium). The learned academies of Greece (Greek Philosophy), of the Roman Empire, and of Islam were predecessors. The church’s monasteries and schools played a part in preserving the early scholastic tradition (Monasticism). As an independent search for knowledge grew, it involved a desire to link faith to reason and science. Scholasticism led to the formation of the first c…
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