Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

Get access Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Graeme Dunphy

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

Subscriptions: Brill.com


(4 words)

See Occupational mobility
Date: 2019-03-20

Career migration

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Lucassen, Jan | Lucassen, Leo
1. Concept Already by the early modern period, key institutions like the State, University, and church (Church) relied on highly specialized “migrants” recruited in an international marketplace. For most of them, relocating was an inescapable condition of their careers, so that this particular form of Emigration is called institutional career migration. Depending on the particular institution involved, a state, academic, or ecclesiastical career for scholars, professors, clergy, civil servants, an…
Date: 2019-03-20

Care, pastoral

(6 words)

See Pastoral care
Date: 2019-03-20


(961 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
The caricature is an art form of amusement and pictorial wit. The word caricatura (from Italian caricare, ‘to exaggerate,’ ‘to overload’) originally referred to an exaggerated imitation of nature in the portrait. In caricature, the artist demonstrates quickness of design, graphic skill, and pictorial wit. As a situational work of art, a caricature is primarily a domain of drawing. Until the 18th century, caricatures circulated in private or semi-public circles, and were not used in graphic reproduction. Early …
Date: 2019-03-20


(6 words)

See Charity | Ethics
Date: 2019-03-20

Carmen figuratum

(960 words)

Author(s): Rohmer, Ernst
The carmen figuratum “is a multimedia composition of text and image in which a block of text, generally versified and poetic in the widest sense, is constrained to a particular graphic shape that is mimetic in character and fulfills a pictographic function coordinated with the content of the verbal utterance” [8. 7]. The illustration formed by the text can either be the silhouette of an object (figurative poetry) or integrate the image into a text (e.g. carmen cancellatum, literally ‘lattice poetry’).Not all the possible forms of the carmen figuratum that developed in Antiq…
Date: 2019-03-20


(4 words)

See Dye
Date: 2019-03-20


(6 words)

See Erotica | Sensualism | Sexuality
Date: 2019-03-20


(1,214 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Term Carnival is derived from the Latin carnislevamen and Italian carnelevare (‘removal of meat’) or simply the jocular Latin interjection carne vale (‘Meat, farewell!’), and denotes abstention from all “fleshly” pleasures at the beginning of the Lenten fast. The term carnival is widely used in the Romance languages and English, and since the 17th century in the Rhineland (German Karneval). Elsewhere in the German-speaking world, the usual terms are Fastnacht or Fasnet, and in Bavaria and Austria Fasching is commonplace (from MHG vast-schanc, the last drink before Lent).Wolfga…
Date: 2019-03-20


(5 words)

See Constitutio Criminalis Carolina
Date: 2019-03-20


(865 words)

Author(s): Holbach, Rudolf
With the increasing use of wood to furnish early modern dwellings, buildings, and facilities, specialized occupational groups of carpenters (joiners, cabinet makers, woodworkers) split off from the framing carpenters (Building trade) [13]. Their products ranged from ornate pieces (Crafts) to simple everyday objects, from wainscoting, doors, and railings through furniture and church interiors to chopping boards, board games, sleds, coffins, and trellises for gardens [9]. The work performed by these specialists included dressing, preparing, and planing wo…
Date: 2019-03-20


(1,214 words)

Author(s): Lang, Heinrich
1. Introduction Terminology varies in commercial documents and inventories of the early modern period for the trade in carpets. A distinction in manufacture type must be drawn between the Oriental knotted carpet and the European woven carpet (tapestry) [4. 9]; [10. 3 f.]; [1]. The channels of distribution for the two categories were quite different, so that it is sensible also to distinguish two market systems.Heinrich Lang 2. Oriental knotted carpets Visual sources, especially Renaissance paintings, attest to the widespread use of Oriental knotted carpets as fl…
Date: 2019-03-20


(10 words)

See Cart | Carter | Coach | Travel aids
Date: 2019-03-20


(925 words)

Author(s): Köppen, Thomas
1. Definition Carts are wagons with one or two axles, pulled by animals (e.g. donkey, horse or cattle) and used for the transportation(Passenger transportation; Traffic and transport; Transport network) of goods. The first carts were built around 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia - present-day Iraq - and in Central Europe. While in Neolithic times these were carts and wagons with one-piece disk wheels, the Bronze Age brought technical innovations like the three-part disk wheel, the braced wheel and the spok…
Date: 2019-03-20


(1,015 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Concept and terms The terms referring to the professions of cartwright, wheelwright and carter go back to the most important products of the trade: the waggon, the frame of the waggon or plow and the wheel[5. 244]. The area of work also comprised carts, sleds or sleighs, rack waggons and harrows. Christoph Weigel’s books of estates mentions in 1698 wheelbarrows and Schanzkarren, the plough and common carts as well as the four-wheel carts, “to which belong, besides the little rattling brewers’ waggons, the trucks and carriers’ carts / long distance and…
Date: 2019-03-20


(1,718 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco
1. Definition Cartesianism is the term for the philosophical movements of the 17th and 18th centuries that ascribed to the philosophy of René Descartes (Latinized: Cartesius; 1596-1650) and, especially, who developed his method and physics further. Accordingly, Cartesianism is defined by three sets of topics: (1) by adoption of the Cartesian doctrine of method, which by means of methodological doubt explains the self-thinking ego (Lat. cogito) as the starting-point for a philosophy that operates strictly deductively; (2) by a dualism of substances, the “t…
Date: 2019-03-20


(4,422 words)

Author(s): Lindgren, Uta
1. Definition and etymology A distinction is made, in considering geographical depictions of the earth’s surface, between maps and map-like representations (see below, 2.3.). Maps are designed to translate the globe to a two-dimensional representation, using a graticule of circles of longitude passing through the poles and circles of horizontal latitude, combined with mathematical projections. The coordinates of the points entered in this graticule are determined by mathematics and astronomy. All da…
Date: 2019-03-20

Case law

(1,699 words)

Author(s): Czeguhn, Ignacio
1. Definition Case law (Ger. Richterrecht) designates objective law  that is created by the verdict of a judgejudge or court of law and is considered valid from that moment on. In general, it is the sum of legal norms and principles created by judges when deciding individual cases without interpreting a given law or customary law. Case law continues to influence Anglo-American law to a considerable extent today, while statute law enjoys precedence in the legal world of continental Europe. The term pr…
Date: 2019-03-20

Case law

(10 words)

See Consilia | Judiciary | Transmissio actorum
Date: 2016-03-22


(3,337 words)

Author(s): Fischer-Tiné, Harald | Büschges, Christian
1. South Asia 1.1. Principles and research The use of the term caste in relation to the social order of South Asia dates back to the early 16th century, when Portuguese travelers to India began to use the word casta (from Latin castus, ‘pure,’ ‘chaste’), borrowed from Spanish, to refer to certain groups within the indigenous population [3] (see below, 2.1.). At first, it was applied relatively indiscriminately to a wide range of large groups differentiated by religion, ethnicity, or social status. Its exclusive application to the Indian (especially H…
Date: 2019-03-20
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