Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Graeme Dunphy

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

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(1,771 words)

Author(s): Bedal, Konrad
1. General Considerations, Distribution “Timber Framing” (German F achwerke) denotes a framework or scaffolding that bears the weight of a building, usually made of wood (in more recent times also metal) (Building materials). The eponymous compartments ( Ge-Fache) contained within the timber fill in the frame and thus form the walls. Timber framing refers to a basic style of wood construction; thus, timber-frame buildings or something very similar were known in nearly all European cultures and many outside of Europe from the Neolithic period on.In the narrower sense referring…
Date: 2016-09-26


(987 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe
1. Definition The most infallible and timeless subjective markers and symptoms in general are the sudden, unexpected, and even unnatural perceived increase in temperature in the body, accompanied by sweating, paradoxical-seeming fits of shivering, debility, and, often, aches and pains. Texts on fever from European Antiquity define fever as significant, even when there was no distinguishing criterion in the governing theory of disease of the time to allow for further differentiation.In the 15th and 16th centuries, the conception of fever originating with Hippocrat…
Date: 2016-09-26