Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Graeme Dunphy

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

Subscriptions: Brill.com


(1,619 words)

Author(s): Köppen, Thomas
1. Definition Historical and modern usages of the word coach vary in meaning. Here, coach is used as a generic term for a wagon with one or two axles and sprung suspension, used to convey passengers  (Passenger transportation) and generally drawn by horses. The term coach is derived from the German Kotschi(wagen), via the MF coche, and may originally be related to the name of the Hungarian town of Kocs. However, the Kotschiwagen were not coachs, but carts without suspension, which were used in Hungary from the late 15th century as courier or passenger vehicles. …
Date: 2017-02-14


(892 words)

Author(s): Bleidick, Dietmar
The term coal today refers to all solid fuels with a carbon content over 50% created by the coalification of organic material. In the course of this transformation of primarily vegetable matter, in particular lignin and cellulose, into brown or black sedimentary rock, carbon is concentrated initially by biochemical (influence of microorganisms), later geochemical and metamorphic processes (action of pressure and heat, passage of time). The result is the formation of coal. The degree of coalifica…
Date: 2017-02-14

Coalition Wars

(11 words)

See Napoleonic Wars | Wars of liberation (1813-1815)
Date: 2017-02-14

Coastal shipping

(2,725 words)

Author(s): Ellmers, Detlev
1. Concept and definitionIn the British Isles, coastal shipping is defined as commercial traffic around the British and Irish coasts. Shipping in inshore waters in the Netherlands was called binnenvaart (not to be confused with  binnenscheepvaart or inland navigation on rivers and canals). However binnenvaart did not include coastal shipping outside Dutch waters, which in the early modern period was considerably more important. In principle, a similar concept applied too in Scandinavia, Italy, and elsewhere, except that coastal shipping …
Date: 2017-02-14

Coat of arms

(10 words)

See Family coat of arms | Town seal
Date: 2017-02-14


(3 words)

See Shoemaker
Date: 2017-02-14


(3 words)

See Dye
Date: 2017-02-14


(1,169 words)

Author(s): Reichardt, Rolf
1. Use in FranceThe cockade (emblem, French cocarde; derived from the comb of the rooster, coq) in the form of a colored rosette appeared widely as a military badge of identification during the War of the Spanish Succession (War of succession) (1701-1714). The troops of the Duke of Marlborough, for instance, wore black cockades. Participants in the Gordon Riots, mass anti-government demonstrations in London in 1780, put the cockade to political use, while members of the Dutch Patriotten in 1781-1787 made cock…
Date: 2017-02-14


(1,046 words)

Author(s): Voltmer, Rita
The idea of the Land of Cockaigne (French  p​ays de Cocagne, Spanish país de Cucaña, Italian paese della Cuccagna, Dutch lant van Cockaengen; German  Schlaraffenland from late medieval  slûraffen lantSchlauraffenlant, from  slûraffe, “lazybones,” “idler”) as a land of plenty and idleness is found in most European traditions, and emerged in the first phase of the early modern period. Except in Sweden, however, the Cockaigne motif has not yet been shown to have appeared in Scandinavian or Eastern European narrative traditions [1. 803].Utopian depictions of lovely pl…
Date: 2017-02-14


(1,967 words)

Author(s): Menninger, Annerose
1. Definition Cocoa and chocolate products are divided into drinking chocolate (defatted cocoa powder whisked with hot water or milk) and eating chocolate (in the form, for example, of blocks or single “chocolates” and consisting of cocoa, cocoa butter or vegetable fat, sugar, and milk). The basic ingredient is the almond-shaped seed (cocoa bean) of the tropical cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.). These are harvested from the cocoa fruits, fermented to reduce bitterness, then dried, roasted, cracked, shelled, and processed.Because cocoa beans are very high in fat and henc…
Date: 2017-02-14

Code civil

(965 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Laurent
1. Origin In order to abolish the legal pluralism of the Ancien Régime and to establish legal unity based on law, the revolutionary constitution of 1791 called for the promulgation of a uniform Code civil (“civil code”; see also Private law). Four drafts were prepared from 1791 to 1799, three of which by Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès; none of them were accepted. The fact that France finally codified the Code civil in 1804 is due to the efforts of the French Consulate to bring stability to France after ten years of the French Revolution (1789) and to Napoleon…
Date: 2017-02-14

Code de Commerce

(10 words)

See Cinq Codes | Commercial law
Date: 2017-02-14

Code de Procédure Civile

(10 words)

See Cinq Codes | Civil procedure
Date: 2017-02-14

Code d’Instruction Criminelle

(9 words)

See Cinq Codes | Criminal proceedings
Date: 2017-02-14

Code pénal

(824 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Laurent
1. Definition Code pénal is the French term for a criminal code. In particular, it is used to refer to the criminal code promulgated under Napoleon I in 1810, which was one of the Cinq codes ( les cinq codes) together with the  Code civil (1804), the  Code de procédure civil (1806), the  Code de commerce (1807), and the Code d'instruction criminelle (1808).Pfister, Laurent2. The Code pénal of 1791All criminal law was codified for the first time in a single law code in France during the French Revolution (1789) [4]. The third estate (French,  tiers etat, the bourgeoisie) demanded new …
Date: 2017-02-14

Codex Iuris Bavarici Criminalis

(741 words)

Author(s): Schlosser, Hans
Prince-elector Maximilian III Joseph's intention to give the Electorate of Bavaria “a complete, new codex iuris patrii” (“codification of ancestral law”) was first realized in 1751 with the promulgation of the Codex juris Bavarici criminalis (CJBC),  a criminal code. It was authored by the Justizjurist and Geheime Ratskanzler Wiguläus Xaverius Aloysius Freiherr von Kreittmayr, a dazzling personality in Bavarian politics. The plan to codify the entirety of the law in a comprehensive Codex Maximilianeus was continued in 1753 with a code of civil procedure ( Codex juris Bavarici …
Date: 2017-02-14

Codex Maximilianeus Bavaricus Civilis

(743 words)

Author(s): Schlosser, Hans
1. Composition and promulgationDuring the Bavarian legislative reform initiated by Prince-Elector Maximilian III Joseph, which encompassed all areas of the law in a three-part Codex Maximilianeus, the Codex Maximilianeus Bavaricus civilis (CMBC) entered into force as the third and final part after the Codex Iuris Bavarici Criminalis (1751) and the Codex Iuris Bavarici Iudiciarii (code of civil procedure from 1753); it was promulgated on January 2, 1756. Like the earlier parts of the law, the CMBC (a  Zivilkodex, i.e. a civil code) was an explicit reaction to the cabinet …
Date: 2017-02-14

Codice Criminale Toscano

(6 words)

See Leopoldina
Date: 2017-02-14


(3 words)

See Manuscripts
Date: 2017-02-14


(2,373 words)

Author(s): Caroni, Pio
1. ScopeLike other concepts of legal history (e.g. Roman law, Ius commune, Customary law, Reception of ius commune), the term “codification” describes a multifaceted reality that is constantly subject to historical change and ultimately difficult to reduce to a common denominator. The history of codification has left a deep mark on early modern Continental legal history and has steered it in a new direction since the late 18th century; codification encompasses two closely related things: on the one hand, the pro…
Date: 2017-02-14
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