Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Graeme Dunphy

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

Subscriptions: Brill.com

Folk belief

(5 words)

See Popular religion
Date: 2016-09-21

Folk literature

(9 words)

See Bänkelsang | Dorfgeschichte | Folk play
Date: 2016-09-21

Folk music

(8 words)

See Popular music | Song
Date: 2016-09-21


(8,731 words)

Author(s): Krug-Richter, Barbara | Zimmermann, Clemens
1. History of Nutrition 1.1 Issues and scope of inquiryAccording to the school of the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, nutrition counted as a social “complete phenomenon,” which, in the sphere of the everyday (Everyday world), “is inextricably linked to other forms of existence” [31]. In the course of the social-historical paradigm shift from the late 1960s, the concept of nutrition became the focus of strong interest for the first time. In German-speaking research, it was economic history, social history, and the history of everyday li…
Date: 2016-09-26

Food preservation

(7 words)

See Foodstuffs, conservation of
Date: 2016-09-21

Food riots

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Schmale, Wolfgang
1. England, France, Germany In the modern era, food riots were closely connected to actual food shortages (Famine and food riots), but were also partly driven by rumor and reactions to it. Fundamentally, rioting was mostly over bread, but there were also general food riots over price ris…
Date: 2016-09-26

Foodstuffs, conservation of

(908 words)

Author(s): Krug-Richter, Barbara
1. General Even before the modern era, creation of shelf-stable foods was one of the fundamental processes designed to secure the food supply of a greater proportion of the population. The unpredictability of harvest yields (see Famine and food riots), as well as the seasonally dependent supply of specific foods, called for stockpiling. With long-distance trade of foodstuffs in its infancy, people in the Middle Ages and the modern era were obliged to preserve a significant portion of their food so…
Date: 2016-09-26

Foodstuffs, staple

(17 words)

See Bread | Fat consumption | Fisheries | Food | Fruit | Meat consumption | Milk | Vegetable
Date: 2016-09-21

Foodstuffs trade

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. General In the modern era, urban consumers spent a large percentage of their income on food. As a natural consequence, many people found employment in the foodstuffs trade. Bakers and butchers comprised the most numerous profession in the towns (including market towns); millers, brewers, and fishermen were also strongly represented. Additionally, there were numerous ancillary trades among the core professions and activities of the foodstuffs industry to supply the cities (Provisions, urban supply of[6. 35–38]).Reith, Reinhold 2. Millers and Bakers Given the importanc…
Date: 2016-09-26


(4 words)

See Topsy-Turvy World
Date: 2016-09-21


(742 words)

Author(s): Rosenke, Stephan
A footnote is a notation, such as a commentary or a reference to literature or sources, placed at the bottom of the page for ease of reading, usually in a smaller font. They are indexed in the main text by means of superscript numbers or special symbols like the asterisk.The glosses and annotations in medieval theological and juristic literature can be seen as the forerunners of the footnote. With the invention of printing, printed marginalia represented a further progression. As well as clarifications and notes on sources, these marginali…
Date: 2016-09-21

Forbidden books

(7 words)

See Index librorum prohibitorumBibliography
Date: 2016-09-21

Forbidden City

(4 words)

See Emperor
Date: 2016-09-21

Forced labor

(1,130 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Josef | Rinke, Stefan
1. Meaning of the Term The term Zwangsarbeit (forced labor) first came into use in Germany around the middle of the 19th century and initially referred exclusively to a form of punishment in prisons or correctional facilities [1]; [3]. Subsequently it developed into todayʼs denotation, primarily in the context of state-organized punishment, exploitation, or annihilation in the 20th-century totalitarian systems. Modern coinages in German like Zwangsdienst (compulsory service),  Dienstzwang (forced service) or  Fron(-arbeit) (forced labor) came into use for the phe…
Date: 2016-09-26

Forced marriage

(6 words)

See Marriage, contraction of
Date: 2016-09-21

Forced migration

(4,403 words)

Author(s): Hoerder, Dirk
1. Introduction Forced and “free” migration sound like opposites, but in reality they are two ends of a continuum - from the relatively independent decision to migrate to the enforced “transportation.” In the context of mass migrations, like that of southern China and southeast Asia (from the 1830s to the 1930s) and the transatlantic migrations (1815-1914), the men and women who were called “free” emigrants faced (often extreme) economic or social pressures. The circumstances in their p…
Date: 2016-09-26

Forced sale

(5 words)

See Bankruptcy
Date: 2016-09-21

Foreign legion

(4 words)

See Mercenary
Date: 2016-09-21

Forensic medicine

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Lorenz, Maren
1. Meaning of the term The discipline now called legal or forensic medicine was already known in the early modern era under the synonymous terms  medicina forensis or  medicina legalis - “judicial medical science” and “judicial medicine.” It was and is concerned with criminal sex acts (Sexuality) and procreation, with crimes of violence and murder, as well as deaths of doubtful causation. It covered the well-known areas relevant to criminal law, as well as questions of civil law in medical issues that affected state insti…
Date: 2016-09-26
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