Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

Get access Subject: History

Executive editor of the English version: Graeme Dunphy

The Encyclopedia of Early Modern History is the English edition of the German-language Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. This 15-volume reference work, published in print between 2005 and 2012 and here available online, offers a multi-faceted view on the decisive era in European history stretching from ca. 1450 to ca. 1850 ce. in over 4,000 entries.
The perspective of this work is European. This is not to say that the rest of the World is ignored – on the contrary, the interaction between European and other cultures receives extensive attention.

New articles will be added on a regular basis during the period of translation, for the complete German version see Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online.

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Gymnasium (school)

(904 words)

Author(s): Bruning, Jens
1. Terminology The term “gymnasium , which originally denoted a sports facility in ancient Greece, came into use in Germany in the early 16th century for grammar schools and Latin schools, primarily those whose offerings exceeded the normal educational objectives (Curriculum). Such an educational institution, similar to a college, was called a  gymnasium illustregymnasium academicum, or Hohe Schule (high school); they were established in places like Bremen, Burgsteinfurt, Herborn, and Zerbst. They were multi-class Latin schools that also offered…
Date: 2019-03-20


(930 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang
1. Terminology The German word for gymnastics, Turnen, was coined by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century, with some ideological baggage (Gymnastics Movement 1.); the equivalents in other languages (Eng.  gymnastics, Ital.  ginnastica, etc.) show that the kinds of sport subsumed under the term can look back on a long tradition. Gymnastics includes floor exercises, apparatus work, vaulting, and acrobatic and general gymnastic exercises. Today the German Gymnastics Association and the  Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique also include dancing, ball gam…
Date: 2019-03-20

Gymnastics Movement

(898 words)

Author(s): Gabriel, Martin
1. Prior to 1848/1849 The rise of the organizations that constituted the gymnastics movement in the first quarter of the 19th century was closely associated with the notion of holistic education advocated by figures like Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, which also incorporated physical education – though there was at least as close an association between gymnastics and political nationalism [5. 49].Clearly the teacher Friedrich Ludwig Jahn is the historical figure most closely identified with the history of the gymnastics movement [6]. In his  Deutsche Turnkunst (published i…
Date: 2019-03-20


(1,945 words)

Author(s): Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe
1. Concept The term gynecology is modern, and reflects the late establishment of the specialty at 19th-century medical faculties (Medicine, faculty of). It first emerged in competition with the older and more general term gynaikeía (Greek “women's matters”), only in the early 18th century in the treatise by the Dresden city physician Martin Schurig,  Gynaecologia (Dresden-Leipzig 1730). The term first appears in the title of a German-language textbook only in 1820, with Carl Gustav Carus’ Lehrbuch der Gynaekologie (“Textbook of Gynecology”). During the 16th and 17th ce…
Date: 2019-03-20


(4 words)

See Roma
Date: 2019-03-20