Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Edited by: Geoffrey Khan
Associate editors: Shmuel Bolozky, Steven Fassberg, Gary A. Rendsburg, Aaron D. Rubin, Ora R. Schwarzwald, Tamar Zewi

The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online features advanced search options, as well as extensive cross-references and full-text search functionality using the Hebrew character set. With over 850 entries and approximately 400 contributing scholars, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online is the authoritative reference work for students and researchers in the fields of Hebrew linguistics, general linguistics, Biblical studies, Hebrew and Jewish literature, and related fields.

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Edomite and Hebrew

(703 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
Edomite is the language of Edom, a territory southeast of the Dead Sea that was a kingdom from ca. 845 to ca. 552 B.C.E., extending into the Negev in 597 B.C.E., and into the Judean Shephelah as far as Lachish and Maresha in 587 B.C.E. (Lemaire 2011). The corpus of Edomite inscriptions is still very limited (Israel 1987; Bartlett 1989:209–229; Vanderhooft 1995): an ostracon from Umm el-Biyara (Milik 1966), another one from Ḥorvat ʿUza (Beit-Arieh and Cresson 1985; Beit-Arieh 2007:133–137; Beckin…

Education: Medieval Period

(2,516 words)

Author(s): Kanarfogel, Ephraim
An educational initiation ceremony that appears to have been in vogue throughout medieval Ashkenaz (Franco-Germany) mandates that a young boy aged five or six is to be brought to the synagogue (in many instances, on the festival of Shavuot), to be welcomed into the study of Torah. The child was instructed to recite certain letters and verses that were written on a tablet or cake and covered with honey, and then to eat the letters, symbolizing the Torah that would become part of the child (Marcus 1996). The educational process itself took place in informal settings. Tutors were con…

Education: Modern Period

(3,527 words)

Author(s): Rosner, Rachel
1. Hebrew Language Instruction in the Context of the Hebrew ‘Revival’ In 1880 Eliezer Ben-Yehuda issued a call for the use of Hebrew as the language of instruction in all schools in the Land of Israel. Within ten years, Hebrew was being taught, in Hebrew, in the Jewish colonies in the Galilee. By 1914, once it had prevailed over German in the ‘language war’, Hebrew became the language of instruction for all subjects in all schools, including universities. Educational institutions (schools, universities, Ul…

Education, Online

(831 words)

Author(s): Charlap, Luba R.
The term ‘online learning’ refers to computer-based learning methods which exploit the interactive features of the Internet. Online language learning can enhance the perception of language as primarily a means of communication. Any analysis or evaluation of the content and methods of online learning must be conducted with this basic premise in mind. Online learning of Hebrew is used both by native speakers (L1-learners) and by those learning Hebrew as a second or foreign language (L2-learners). Studies have shown that learning a second or foreign language online has adv…

E (˒e (negative particle) - Ezra (priest))

(2,708 words)

˒e (negative particle) Negation: Pre-Modern Hebrew e-ey fluctuation Graphophonemic Assignment e-i fluctuation Graphophonemic Assignment E–language Generative Grammar and Hebrew early grammatical stage Child Language Eastern Ashkenazi Hebrew Ashkenazi Pronunciation Tradition: Modern Eastern European Jews  Ashkenazization of Judeo-Slavic, Hebrew Component in  Bible chanting tradition Biblical Accents: Musical Dimension  Hebrew printing by Printing  Karaites Karaim, Hebrew Component in, Karaite Pronunciation Traditions: Modern  and revival of Hebrew French …

Egyptian and Hebrew

(1,961 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Aaron D.
The relationship between Egyptian and Hebrew can be considered from three perspectives: (1) from the perspective of the genetic connection between the two languages due to their shared Afroasiatic origins; (2) from that of the influence of Hebrew (or, Canaanite) on Egyptian; and (3) from that of the influence of Egyptian on Hebrew. Since (3) has been partially dealt with in a separate entry (Egyptian Loanwords), this article will deal mainly with (1) and (2). 1. Egyptian and Semitic It has long been recognized that Egyptian and Hebrew have certain elements in common. Alrea…

Egyptian Loanwords

(657 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Aaron D.
Given the close proximity of Israel to Egypt, the fact that Egypt was a powerful ancient culture, and the fact that several biblical passages (including the lengthy Joseph narrative) are set in Egypt, it is no surprise that Egyptian words made their way into the Hebrew language (Egyptian and Hebrew). It is perhaps surprising that the total number of Egyptian loans is actually relatively small, especially if we accept the biblical account that the Israelites resided in Egypt for several generations. Among the Egyptian loans most commonly met in the biblical text are פַּרְעֹה parʿō ‘Pharaoh…

Egyptian Universities

(2,150 words)

Author(s): Hawary, Mohamed
1. Introduction There are currently eighteen governmental universities (Al-Azhar University included) and thirteen private universities in Egypt. Hebrew studies within Egyptian universities are considered a practical necessity and a vital area of research, due, in large part, to the complex political relationship between Israel and Egypt. However, even before the Arab-Israeli conflict and the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, Hebrew and other Semitic Languages were taught at the Dār al-ʿUlū…

Egypt: in Antiquity

(715 words)

Author(s): Joosten, Jan
Throughout the biblical period, Egypt was an important destination for emigrants from the land of Israel. Reports of Jewish settlements in the land of the Nile come to us from the 6th century B.C.E. onwards. A prophecy in Isa. 19.18 announces: “there will be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan”. Actual information on the knowledge of Hebrew in Egypt is scarce, however, and mostly negative. The data indicate that Jews living in Egypt were thoroughly acculturat…