Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture Online

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Subject: Jewish Studies

Editor-in-Chief: Dan Diner

From Europe to America to the Middle East, North Africa and other non-European Jewish settlement areas the Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture covers the recent history of the Jews from 1750 until the 1950s.

More informatiom: Brill.com

Ecclesia et Synagoga

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Heil, Johannes
Allegorical signifiers in Christian texts and images, represented individually or as a contrasting pair focalizing fundamental concepts for the history of salvation. In their juxtaposition,  Ecclesia (Church) and Synagoga (Synagogue) express a hierarchical relationship. The younger Church is put in a positive light by the older Synagogue, the “New Testament” by the “Old,” the Christians by the Jews. Ecclesia et Synagoga as an instrument of Christian instruction is central to a typological salvation-historical world view that can be found in the textual t…
Date: 2018-04-13

École de Paris

(2,583 words)

Author(s): van Voolen, Edward
This designation is used to refer to a cosmopolitan arts scene active in Paris from the beginning of the 20th century until 1940, largely composed of non-French artists. Many of these were Jews who settled in Paris to take refuge from the afflictions and harassment of Eastern Europe and drew inspiration there. The diverse origins of the artists was accompanied by a diversity in modern art forms from Impressionism to Dadaism that characterized the École de Paris.1. Paris and the École de Paris Beginning in the mid-19th century, Paris acquired a reputation as a sourc…
Date: 2018-04-13

Edicts of Toleration

(2,984 words)

Author(s): Hecht, Louise
A collective term for the reform laws enacted under Emperor Joseph II in the years 1781 to 1790 for non-Catholics in the Habsburg monarchy. With regard to the position of the Jews, they lifted some legal and economic discrimination, while simultaneously asserting civic responsibilities. Although this did not amount to legal equality, the ordinances contributed to the dissolution of traditional Jewish community structures and promoted modernization processes within the Jewish communities…
Date: 2018-04-13


(2,202 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Clemens
The Biblical toponym and ethnonym Edom has been used in religious Jewish literature since late antiquity as a designation for the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the term was identified with Christian territories and Christian people who were hostile to the Jews. Along with Edom, other biblical toponyms and ethnonyms, such as Ishmael, Amalek, and Ashkenaz​, were used to designate people and places of later times and so to interpret current experiences through traditiona…
Date: 2018-04-13