Jesuit Historiography Online (JHO) is an Open Access resource offering over seventy historiographical essays written by experts in their field. Aimed at scholars of Jesuit history and at those in all overlapping areas, the essays in JHO provide summaries of key texts from the earlier literature, painstaking surveys of more recent work, and digests of archival and online resources. Crucially, the scope of the essays is global: they cover both Anglophone and non-Anglophone sources and scholarship from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The result is much more than a bibliographical check-list: authors explore trends in Jesuit historiography and provide a nuanced, systematic, and in-depth analysis of what has been written—when, why, and by whom—about arguably the most prolific, diverse, and wide-ranging religious order within the Roman Catholic tradition. JHO is available in Open Access thanks to generous support from the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies at Boston College.
Essays for this project are being submitted throughout the end of 2017 and are peer reviewed on a rolling basis. As soon as the essay has been approved and copy-edited, it is published on the platform within a month.
Jesuit Historiography: A History, Robert A. Maryks
PART ONE: GEOGRAPHICAL
A: Africa and Asia
- Africa, Festo Mkenda, S.J.
- China, Paul Rule
- Pre-suppression, Ines G. Županov
- Post-restoration, Savio Abreu, S.J.
- Indonesia, Karel Steenbrink
- Japan, Mayu Fujikawa
- Korea, Franklin Rausch et al.
- Philippines, René B. Javellana, S.J.
- Southeast Asia, Anh Tran, S.J.
- Pre-suppression, Christopher M. Parsons
- Post-restoration, John D. Meehan, S.J.
- English Colonies and the United States, Catherine O’Donnell
- Portuguese Americas
- Pre-suppression, Tähtinen Lauri
- Post-restoration, Guillermo Wilde
- Spanish Americas
- Pre-suppression, Andrés Prieto
- Post-restoration, Arturo Reynoso
C. Australia and Oceania
D. Europe and Levant
- Bohemia, Ivo Cerman
- British Isles
- Pre-suppression, Hannah Thomas
- Post-restoration, Darren Tierney
- Croatia, Teodora Shek Brnardić
- Eastern European territories, Ines A. Murzaku
- German-speaking lands
- Pre-suppression, Sky Michael Johnston
- Post-restoration Germany, Róisín Healy
- Hungary, Béla Vilmos Mihalik
- Ireland, Brian Jackson
- Italian Peninsula and Islands
- Pre-suppression, Kathleen Comerford
- Post-restoration, David Dahl
- Pre-suppression, Robert John Clines
- Post-restoration, Chantal Verdeil
- Low Countries, Gerrit vanden Bosch
- Pre-suppression, Piotr Urbański
- Post-restoration, Stanisław Obirek
- Pre-suppression, Federico Palomo
- Post-restoration, Francisco Malta Romeiras
PART TWO: THEMATIC
- Anti-Jesuitism, Pierre-Antoine Fabre and José Eduardo Franco
- Buddhism, Trent Pomplun
- Cartography, Robert Batchelor
- Devotional Literature, Charles Keenan
- Emblems, Ralph Dekoninck
- Exegesis, Luke Murray
- Government and Institute, Markus Friedrich
- Hinduism, Will Sweetman
- Historiographers, Moreno Bonda
- Islam, Michael VanZandt Collins
- Legal Thought, Wim Decock
- Libraries, Noel Golvers
- Linguistics, O.J. (Otto) Zwartjes
- Music, Daniele V. Filippi
- Neo-Latin Literature, Matthew Mcgowan
- Pedagogy, Claude N. Pavur, S.J.
- Early Modern, Jacob Schmutz
- Modern, Cristiano Casalini
- Political Thought, Erik de Bom
- Rhetoric, Cinthia Gannett
- Social Justice, Daniel Cosacchi
- Spiritual Exercises, Moshe Sluhovsky
- Spirituality, Rob Faesen
- Suppression and Restoration, Paul Shore
- Theatre and Dance, Jost Eickmeyer
- Theology, Bernhard Knorn, S.J.
- Visual Culture, Jeffrey Muller
- Women and Gender, Gemma Simmonds, C.J.
Robert Aleksander Maryks, PhD (2006) in history, Fordham University, is associate professor of history, associate director of the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies, and editor of Jesuit Sources at Boston College. He has published on various aspects of the history of the Jesuits, including Saint Cicero and the Jesuits (Ashgate, 2008), The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews (Brill, 2009), Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine (Brill, 2011), and A Companion to Ignatius of Loyola (Brill, 2014). He is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Jesuit Studies, the Jesuit Studies book series, and Boston College Jesuit Bibliography: The New Sommervogel Online.
Dominique Avon is professor of Modern history at the Université du Maine (Le Mans-France). His scientific and teaching profile comprises: Religious phenomenon (Christianity and Islam); intellectuals; history of ideas. His books include a biography of a Jesuit, Paul Doncoeur (1880-1961). Un croisé dans le siècle (2001); Les Jésuites et la société française aux XIXe-XXe siècles (co-edited with Philippe Rocher) (2001); Les Frères prêcheurs en Orient. Les dominicains du Caire (2005); Hezbollah. A history of the “Party of God” (co-edited with Anaïs-Trissa Khatchadourian) (2010), Sujet, fidèle, citoyen. Espace européen (XIe-XXIe siècles) (2014). With John Tolan, Dominique Avon is co-director of the Institute of Religious Pluralism and Atheism (www.irpa.eu).
Historiography of the Society of Jesus: The Case of France after the Order's Restoration in 1814
Cristiano Casalini has been teaching history of education at the University of Parma since 2006. His field of research is mainly sixteenth-century education and especially Jesuit education. He has worked on texts and commentaries of early modern classics of education. Among others, he published Cursus Conimbricensis (Rome: Anicia, 2012; Portuguese edition, Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2015; English edition, New York: Routledge, 2017), the first comprehensive philosophical textbook published by the Jesuits of Coimbra at the end of the sixteenth century. He also edited with Claude Pavur Jesuit Pedagogy, 1540–1616: A Reader (Chestnut Hill, MA: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2016). Cristiano is currently a research scholar at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies of Boston College, where he is working on early Jesuit pedagogy.
Historiography of Jesuit Post-Restoration Philosophy
Robert John Clines (PhD Syracuse University) is assistant professor of history at Western Carolina University. His research has been funded by the Fondazione Lemmermann, a J. William Fulbright Scholarship, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Early Modern Conversions Project, and the American Academy in Rome. He has contributed to journals such as The Mediterranean Historical Review, Renaissance Studies, and The Sixteenth Century Journal. His current book project is an exploration of the life of Giovanni Battista Eliano (1530–89), the only Jewish-born member of the Society of Jesus we know of. The book uses Eliano’s experiences and interactions while serving as a missionary to Eastern Christians in order to challenge preconceived notions of the nature of religious conversion in the early modern Mediterranean.
The Society of Jesus and the Early Modern Christian Orient
Alexandre Coello de la Rosa is professor of history in the Department of Humanities at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF, Barcelona). He earned his doctorate in history in 2001 at Stony Brook, New York. He is the author, editor, and co-editor of fourteen books, as well as numerous articles and review essays in many prestigious national and international journals. He specializes in colonial and ecclesiastical history, with an emphasis on the Society of Jesus, chronicles of the Indies, historical anthropology, and sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Peru and the Philippines. His current research deals with the jurisdictional conflicts between the diocesan clergy and the Society of Jesus in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Philippines.
The Historiography of the Jesuit Presence in Oceania
Kathleen M. Comerford is professor of history at Georgia Southern University. She has received grants from the Renaissance Society of America, the American Historical Association, the Mellon Foundation, the Folger Shakespeare Library, the Newberry Library, and libraries at Yale and the University of Wisconsin. A frequent speaker at the Renaissance Society of America and Sixteenth Century Studies Conferences, she is the author of multiple articles and three monographs, including Jesuit Foundations and Medici Power, 1532–1621 (Brill, 2016), and has edited and/or contributed to three volumes of collected studies. She serves as the associate editor of the Journal of Jesuit Studies.
The Historiography of Jesuits in the Italian Peninsula and Islands before the Suppression
Daniele V. Filippi (b.1975) is a musicologist. His publications on Jesuits and music include: “A Sound Doctrine: Early Modern Jesuits and the Singing of the Catechism” (Early Music History 34 ) and “‘Ask the Jesuits to send verses from Rome’: The Society’s Networks and the European Dissemination of Devotional Music” (in Exploring Jesuit Distinctiveness, ed. Robert A. Maryks [Brill, 2016]). In 2016, he edited a special issue of the Journal of Jesuit Studies, titled “‘Their sound hath gone forth into all the earth’: Music and Sounds in the Ministries of Early Modern Jesuits.” For more information about his scholarship, visit http://www.selvarmonica.com.
Retrieving the Sounds of the Old Society: For a History of Historiography on Jesuits and Music
Mayu Fujikawa is a Visiting Fellow at the European University Institute in Italy, currently writing a book on the visual representations of two Japanese embassies to Europe (one Jesuit and the other Franciscan) during the late 16th and early 17th century. After obtaining her PhD from Washington University in St. Louis, she taught at Ithaca College, Bucknell University, and Middlebury College as a Visiting Assistant Professor. Her research interest concerns East-West artistic relationships; she has recently written a study on the depiction of non-European figures within The Miracles of Francis Xavier, which Rubens painted for the Jesuits’ church in Antwerp. Studies on the Jesuit Japan Mission
René B. Javellana, S.J., is an associate professor of the fine arts at the Ateneo de Manila University. There, he was director of the Fine Arts Program (2003–9) and coordinator of the Art Management (2012–15). He chairs the Board of Trustees of Jesuit Communications, the media organization of the Jesuits in the Philippines. He is also the archivist of the Philippine province of the Society of Jesus. He has written both scholarly and popular works on architecture, fine and popular arts, and heritage conservation. He is area editor (architecture) for the revised edition of the Cultural Center of the Philippines’ Encyclopedia of Philippine Art.
Historiography of the Philippine Province
Sky Michael Johnston is a PhD candidate in the Department of History at the University of California, San Diego. He has previously published in the Journal of Jesuit Studies. His research focuses on religious ideas in early modern Germany, especially as they relate to perceptions of and interactions with the natural world, particularly with regard to weather.
Pre-Suppression Jesuits in German-Speaking Lands
Bernhard Knorn, S.J., PhD is a research scholar in systematic theology at Boston College and Frankfurt–Sankt Georgen. He works in the area of contemporary soteriology and ecclesiology as well as on Jesuit theologians of the sixteenth century. His doctoral thesis “Versöhnung und Kirche” (Reconciliation and the church) was published in 2016. His articles include studies on the colloquy in the Spiritual Exercises (2008), on Pierre Favre’s theology of the cross (2014), and a German translation of Jerónimo Nadal’s early autobiography, the Chronicon (2013).
Jesuits in Systematic Theology: A Historiographical Essay
Francisco Malta Romeiras, PhD (2014, University of Lisbon), is a postdoctoral researcher at the Interuniversity Center for the History of Science and Technology at the University of Lisbon. Recently, he published Ciência, prestígio e devoção: Os jesuítas e a ciência em Portugal (séculos XIX e XX) (Cascais: Lucerna, 2015). He also edited, together with Henrique Leitão, Obra selecta do Padre Luís Archer, S.J., 4 vols. (Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2015–16). He is a member of the editorial board of the Jesuit learned journal Brotéria since 2013.
Jesuit Historiography in Modern Portugal
Patricia W. Manning is an associate professor in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Kansas. She has a wide range of research interests concerning early modern Spain, including literature, the Inquisition, and the Society of Jesus. Her book Voicing Dissent in Seventeenth-Century Spain: Inquisition, Social Criticism and Theology in the Case of El Criticón (Brill, 2009) examines the manner in which clerics like Baltasar Gracián negotiated inquisitorial strictures. Several of her articles analyze emblems, publication protocols, and leave-taking procedures in the Society of Jesus.
Writing in the Shadow of Past Polemics: Historiography about the Pre-Suppression Society of Jesus in Spain
John David Meehan, S.J., PhD (2000) in history, University of Toronto, is professor of history and president of Campion College (University of Regina), the only Jesuit undergraduate college in Canada. He has published widely on Jesuit history, Asia Pacific studies, and Canada’s relations with Asia, including The Dominion and the Rising Sun (UBC, 2004), which won the Prime Minister’s award (2006) for translation into Japanese, and Chasing the Dragon: Shanghai and Canada's Early Relations with China (UBC, 2011). He is assistant editor of the three-volume Jesuit History Series (Novalis, 2015, 2017) on the history of Jesuits in English Canada.
Historiography of Jesuits in Canada since 1842
Béla Vilmos Mihalik, PhD (2014, Budapest, Eötvös Loránd University) is a research fellow at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Centre for Humanities, Institute of History (Budapest) and director of the Hungarian Jesuit Archive (Budapest). He specialized in the history of Hungary in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly in church history.
Centuries of Resumptions: The Historiography of the Jesuits in Hungary
Festo Mkenda, S.J., DPhil (2009) in history, University of Oxford, is director of the Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya) and advisory editor of Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu. He lectures in the history of Christianity with a focus on Africa. Among his publications are Mission for Everyone: A Story of the Jesuits in Eastern Africa, 1555–2012 (2012), and a translation of and commentary on the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola in Kiswahili under the title Mazoezi ya Kiroho ya Mtakatifu Inyasi wa Loyola (2005). His research interests include identity and nationalism in Africa, the Kiswahili language, contextualized theology and spirituality, and Jesuit history.
Jesuit Historiography in Africa
Luke Murray is a postdoctoral researcher of the Research Foundation of Flanders, Belgium. After studying systematic theology at Ave Maria University in Ave Maria, Florida, Dr. Murray obtained a second doctorate in historical theology at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, writing his dissertation on Jesuit biblical studies after Trent. Currently, he is studying the biblical hermeneutics of three influential Spanish Jesuits: Juan Maldonado, Francisco Ribera, and Alfonso Salmerón.
A History of Historiography on Jesuit Exegesis
Eric Nelson is professor of history at Missouri State University. His books include The Legacy of Iconoclasm: Religious War and the Relic Landscape of Tours, Blois and Vendôme (University of Saint Andrews Centre for French History and Culture, 2013) and The Jesuits and the Monarchy: Catholic Reform and Political Authority in France (1590–1620) (Ashgate, 2005).
The Historiography of the Pre-Suppression Jesuit Mission in France
Catherine O’Donnell is an associate professor of history at Arizona State University. She studies religion and culture in early America, and is the author of a biography of Saint Elizabeth Seton (forthcoming, Cornell University Press) as well as of Men of Letters in the Early Republic: Cultivating Forums of Citizenship (University of North Carolina Press, 2008).
Jesuits in the American Colonies and the United States, 1700–1899
Claude N. Pavur, S.J., PhD (Graduate Institute of the Liberal Arts, Emory), is an associate editor at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies at Boston College, and holds degrees in classical studies from Yale and in theology from Regis College (Toronto) and the Graduate Theological Union (Berkeley). From 1995 until 2012, he primarily taught Latin at Saint Louis University, where he continues to manage a website for Latin pedagogy. His publications include a study of Nietzsche and classical humanism, a translation of the Jesuit Ratio studiorum (2005), and a translation of Pedro de Ribadeneyra’s Life of Ignatius of Loyola (2014).
The Historiography of Jesuit Pedagogy
Sheila J. Rabin, PhD (1987) in history, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, is professor of history at Saint Peter’s University, Jersey City, New Jersey. She studies the history of science and has concentrated on the debate over astrology from the mid-fifteenth to the mid-seventeenth centuries. Notable publications include articles in Renaissance Quarterly (1997), Journal of the History of Astronomy (2005), and Pico della Mirandola: New Essays, ed. Michael Dougherty. She is currently looking at issues of science and religion in the astrology debate.
Jesuit Science before 1773: A Historiographical Essay
Manuel Revuelta González (Población de Campos, Palencia, Spain, 1936), PhD (1970) in history, Complutense University Madrid, is professor emeritus at the Pontifical University Comillas, Madrid. He has published numerous works on the nineteenth-century church in Spain, including Política religiosa de los liberales en el siglo XIX (1973), La exclaustración (1976, 2012) and El anticlericalismo español en sus documentos (1998). His main interest remains in Jesuit history—he published La Compañía de Jesús en la España contemporánea (1984, 1991, 2008), Los colegios de jesuitas y su tradición educativa (1998), Memorias del P. Luis Martín (1988), and El restablecimiento de la Compañía de Jesús (2014).
Historiography of the Post-Restoration Society of Jesus in Spain
Philippe Rocher is librarian. He is doctor in history of the Université du Maine (Le Mans-France) with a thesis on one jesuit college : « Un collège de la Compagnie de Jésus au 19e – 20e siècle : Notre-Dame de Mongré à Villefranche-sur-Saône (1851-1951) ». He published, with Dominique Avon, Les Jésuites et la société française aux XIXe-XXe siècles (2001), and he edited alone Le goût de l’excellence, Quatre siècles d’éducation jésuite en France (2011). He has written many articles on French and Canadian Jesuits.
Historiography of the Society of Jesus: The Case of France after the Order's Restoration in 1814
Paul Rule was born and educated in Melbourne, Australia. His doctoral thesis at the Australian National University was on the Jesuit interpretation of Confucianism. He taught Chinese history at the University of Melbourne and religious studies and history at La Trobe University. He is engaged in major projects for the Macau Ricci Institute (an annotated translation of the Acta Pekinensia of which the first volume appeared in 2015) and the Ricci Institute at the University of San Francisco (a history of the Chinese Rites Controversy). He has published articles and books on Chinese and aboriginal religion and especially on the Jesuit mission in China.
The Historiography of the Jesuits in China
Paul Shore has held teaching and research posts at Saint Louis University, Harvard Divinity School, Oxford University, the University of Wrocław, the University of Edinburgh, Trinity College Dublin, and Charles University Prague, and in 2013 was the Allan Richardson Fellow in Theology and Religion at Durham University. He is currently adjunct professor of religious studies at the University of Regina, Saskatchewan and adjunct professor of history at Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba.
The Historiography of the Society of Jesus during the Years of Its Suppression (1773–1814)
Moshe Sluhovsky is Paulette and Claude Kelman professor of French history and the chair of the Department of History and the School of History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His latest books include “Believe not every spirit”: Demonic Possession, Mysticism, and Discernment in Early Modern Catholicism (The University of Chicago Press, 2007), Becoming a New Self: Practices of Belief in Early Modern Catholicism (University of Chicago Press, 2016), and a series of Hebrew textbooks on early modern Europe, published in 2015 by the Open University of Israel.
A Biography of the Spiritual Exercises
Karel Steenbrink (born in Breda, Netherlands 1942) is professor emeritus of intercultural theology at Utrecht University. He started his academic career with research and dissertation on the transformation of traditional Islamic education in Indonesia. Between 1981 and 1998, he was teaching at the State Academy of Islamic Studies of Jakarta and Yogyakarta. He wrote a history of nineteenth-century Islam in Indonesia and Dutch Colonialism and Indonesian Islam, Contacts and Conflicts, 1602–1950. Since the 1990s, he has also worked on the history of Christianity in Indonesia. He has special interest in Qur’anic Studies, and published on Muslim narratives of Adam, Jesus, as well on popular sections of the Qur’an.
Jesuits in Indonesia, 1546–2015
David Strong S.J., MA, BEd, PhD is an Australian Jesuit who has worked at all levels of education in Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney in teaching, counseling, and administration. He is the author of Jesuits in Australia, The Australian Dictionary of Jesuit Biography, The College by the Harbour, the history of St Aloysius’ College, Sydney, and Riverview: An Educational History, of St Ignatius’ College, Sydney. A second edition of the Dictionary is currently with publishers, and a manuscript on the Jesuit missions in central China, 1842–1949, is in preparation.
Historiography of the Australian Province
Hannah Thomas is a qualified archivist and early modern historian, specializing in post-Reformation Catholicism in the British Isles. Her PhD (Swansea University, 2014) analyzed the extensive Welsh Jesuit missionary library in Hereford and beyond, and its links with the national and international Catholic community. Hannah is currently the holder of a post-doctoral fellowship at the Centre for Catholic Studies, Durham University, and is interested in death, dying, and burial in the exiled communities of English women religious; Welsh Catholicism in the post-Reformation era; and Catholic uses of libraries and collections of appropriate reading material.
Historiography of the Jesuits in England in the Early Modern Period
Agustín Udías, S.J., was born in Santander, Spain in 1935. He obtained in 1964 his PhD degree in geophysics from Saint Louis University and, in 1971, the degree of “Doctor en Ciencias Físicas” from Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He did research and taught at the University of California, Berkeley; the Wolfgang Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main and at the Universidad de Barcelona. From 1977, he had been professor of geophysics and, from 2005, he has been professor emeritus at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He is member of the Academia Europaea and corresponding member of the Real Academia de Historia y Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Seismology (Springer). He is the author, more recently, of Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories (Kluwer, 2003) and of Jesuit Contribution to Science: A History (Springer, 2014).
Jesuit Contribution to Science 1814–2000: A Historiographical Essay
Gerrit Vanden Bosch studied modern history in Brussels and Leuven and is archivist of the Archdiocese of Mechlin-Brussels. He published on several topics of the history of Catholicism in the Low Countries in premodern times, including the representation of the afterlife in seventeenth and eighteenth-century Catholic sermons (Hemel, hel en vagevuur. Preken over het hiernamaals in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden tijdens de 17de en 18de eeuw [Leuven: Davidsfonds, 1991]), religious congregations (Carmelites, Black Sisters), and the Jesuit mission in the Dutch Republic. He was co-editor of a history of the Archdiocese of Mechlin-Brussels (Het aartsbisdom Mechelen-Brussel. 450 jaar geschiedenis [Antwerp: Halewijn, 2009]) and is member of the board of the Centre for Religious Art and Culture (CRKC, Leuven) and member of the Advisory Board of Cultural Heritage of the Flemish Community.
Jesuits in the Low Countries (1542–1773): A Historiographical Essay
Ines G. Županov is senior research fellow at the CNRS and the current director of the Centre d’études de l’Inde/l’Asie du Sud (CNRS/EHESS) in Paris. She is a social and cultural historian of Catholic missions in South Asia and has also worked on other topics related to the Portuguese empire. In addition to other two books, her latest monograph co-written with Ângela Barreto Xavier is Catholic Orientalism: Portuguese Empire, Indian Knowledge, 16th–18th centuries (New Delhi: OUP, 2015). She co-edited six books and her articles appeared in various journals (Annales, Representations, Journal of Early Modern History, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, etc.).
The Historiography of the Jesuit Missions in India (1500–1800)