Religion Past and Present

Purchase Access
Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Baader, Franz Xaver von

(670 words)

Author(s): Cesa, Claudio
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1765, Munich – May 23, 1851, Munich) studied medicine at Ingolstadt and Vienna, receiving his Dr. med. in 1785; from 1788 to 1792 he attended the mining academy in Freiberg. After a stay in England (1792–1795), he entered public service as superintendent of mines for Bavaria. In 1808 he was made a member of the Academy of Sciences and ennobled. A me…

Baal/Baalat

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus
[German Version] In the canonical context, the Old Testament creates the impression that the territories adjacent to Israel were dominated by a great god Baal whose orgiastic rituals had, for centuries, tempted Israel to forsake Yahweh and thus to break the first commandment. This picture, however, is the result of a retrospective projection from the monotheistic tendencies of a later period.…

Baalbek

(174 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram

Baʾal Shem Tov

(337 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (c. 1700, Okop, Ukraine – 1760, Mezibuz, Silesia), acronym: “Besht,” Baal Shem Tov, lit. “Master of the Good Name,” figuratively “Master of White Magic” was actually called Israel ben Eliezer and is considered…

Babai the Great

(200 words)

Author(s): Abramowski, Luise
[German Version] (c. 550–628) became abbot of the “Great Monastery” on Mt. Isla in 604. A monastic reformer, he was against Messalian and Origenistic currents in the church and wrote a commentary on the moderate Ev…

Baba Yaga

(209 words)

Author(s): Schenkluhn, Angela
[German Version] Etymology partly uncertain: Baba (Russ. “grandmother”), Yaga (from Galician jaza “snake” or Russ. užas “terror”). Baba Yaga is a central figure in eastern Slavic and particularly in Russian fairy tales. She is a mythical figure who embodies the archetypal “old woman.” Attempts have been made to give her a place in the Slavic pantheon or to interpret her mythologically as a personific…

Babylas of Antioch

(127 words)

Author(s): Ritter, Adolf M.
[German Version] (died 250/251). Babylas died as an imprisoned bishop under emperor Decius (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. VI, 39.4). In the 4th century, he was the most revered Antiochene martyr (Persecutions of Christians) after Ignatius. His relics were moved several times to various sites (initially under Caesar Gallus, 351–354; the first recorded translation of relics in the h…

Babylon

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Klengel-Brandt, Evelyn
[German Version] I. Identification and Discovery The ruins of Babylon lie on the banks of one of the arms of the river Euphrates, 90 km southwest of Baghdad. Known from the OT, the name of the city had always been associated with a mound of ruins in the northern-most part of the area called Babil. In the Middle Ages, the …

Babylonia

(6 words)

Babylonian Captivity

(9 words)

[German Version] Babylon Papacy

Babylonian Exile

(854 words)

Author(s): Becking, Bob
[German Version] I. “Babylonian Exile” is the term used to describe a period in the history of Judah, in which much of the upper class was deported to Babylon in the years 598–587 bce, where they remained until after 539 bce. The period is named after the Neo-Babylonian empire. The notion of a Babylonian captivity is outdated and implies an overly negative view of the events. The Neo-Babylonian Empire which dominated the ancient Near East (ANE) from 605 t…

Babylonian Judaism

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Oppenheimer, Aharon | Cohen, Mark R. | Rejwan, Nissim
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Middle Ages – III. Modern Times I. Antiquity The Jewish co…

Bacchus

(8 words)

[German Version] Dionysos and Bacchus

Bach

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] 1. Johann Michael (Aug 9, 1648, Arnstadt – May 17, 1694, Gehren). Son of the Arnstadt organist Heinrich Bach, brother of the grandfather and father-in-law of 2. Through his marriage with one of the five daughters of the Arnstadt town clerk Johann Wedemann, he founded a family clan of musicians and councilmen in the towns of Thurìngia, which was not without …

Bachkovo Monastery

(189 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Bulg. Bačkovski manastir), situated on the northern edge of the Rhodope Mountains and dedicated to the “Dormition of the Mother of God,” it is the second largest monastery in Bulgaria. As one of three Stavropigial monasteries, it stands under the authority of the Holy Synod. It was founded in 1083 …

Bachmann, Ingeborg

(252 words)

Author(s): Lermen, Birgit J.
[German Version] (Jun 25, 1926, Klagenfurt – Oct 17, 1973, Rome) was a lyricist, narrator, translator, essayist, and radio playwright. She studied philosophy, German philology and psychology at Innsbruck, Graz and Vienna, and received her doctorate in 1950 with a dissertation on M. Heidegger. From 1950 to 1953, she was an editor for the “Red-White-Red” net…

Bachmann, Traugott

(349 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1865, Caana bei Niesky, Oberlausitz – Feb 27, 1948, Niesky). Of rural background, Bachmann attended the missionary school of the Bohemian/Moravian Brethren (II) in Niesky from 1890 to 1892, joining the order in 1891. From 1892 to 1916, he was active as a missionary in the Moravian mission territory in German East Africa, …

Bachofen, Johann Jakob

(177 words)

Author(s): Lanwerd, Susanne
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1815, Basel – Nov. 25, 1887, Basel) studied ancient cultures and jurisprudence (in Berlin), became professor of Roman law in Basel in 1841, judge in 1842, and city councilman in 1844. With the exception of his office as criminal judge, he resigned from all public offices in 1844/1845 and became a private scholar. Bachofen's most notab…

Backus, Isaac

(238 words)

Author(s): Dekar, Paul R.
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1724, Norwich, CT – Jan 20, 1806, Middleborough, MA) was a prominent Baptist minister in New England during a period that was marked by two religious revivals, the struggle for Freedom of Religion in the American colonies, and the achievement of independence by the USA. Backus lost his father Samuel, a wealthy farmer, at the age of 16. This experience influenced …

Bacon, Francis

(148 words)

Author(s): Winnekes, Katharina
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1909, Dublin – Apr 28, 1992, London) devoted himself to painting as an autodidact in 1931. His first significant paintings (several crucifixions) were made in 1933 under the influence of surrealism. Bacon's independent work started with the Triptych “Studies of figures at the base of a crucifixion” (1944; T…
▲   Back to top   ▲