Religion Past and Present

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Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Tattoos

(383 words)

Author(s): Bräunlein, Peter J.
[German Version] The word tattoo derives from the Tahitian word tatau, “open a wound.” Pricking or cutting instruments and dyes are used to make permanent decorations, symbols, and images on the skin. Tattooing is found throughout the world; its origin, like that of body painting, is prehistoric. Depending on their cultural setting, tattoos range from a few dots or circles on the back of the hand, the forehead, or the chin (Middle ¶ Eastern nomads, Inuit) to whole-body tattoos (Japan, Polynesia). Tattooing is a ritual performed by specialists, not uncommonly taking several y…

Taube, Otto von (Baron)

(290 words)

Author(s): Hurst, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 21, 1879, Reval [Tallinn] – Jun 20, 1973, Gauting), German writer whose work was increasingly informed by a Christian perspective. After earning a degree in law in Leipzig and doing an internship, from 1906 to 1910 Taube studied art history in Leipzig, Berlin, and Halle. From 1918 on, he lived in Gauting, near Munich, as a freelance writer. In 1936 he joined the Confessing Church; after 1945 he held the office of reader in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria. With his …

Tauler, Johannes

(556 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c.1300, Strasbourg – Jun 16, 1361, Strasbourg). Along with Meister Eckhart and H. Suso, Tauler was the most important representative of German Dominican mysticism (III, 3.b) on the Upper Rhine. Trained at the Dominican convent in Strasbourg, which he had joined around the age of 14, he did not hold a degree in theology but had received a good education; philosophically active, he participated in the neoplatonic revival in the Dominican order (Berthold of Moosburg). In terms of th…

Taurellus, Nicholas

(269 words)

Author(s): Frank, Günter
[German Version] (Oechslein; Nov 26, 1547, Mömpelgard [Montbéliard] – Sep 28, 1606, Altdorf). In 1560 Taurellus began his studies in Tübingen with J. Schegk and Samuel Heiland (1533–1592); in 1565 he began studying theology. After 1566 he studied medicine at Basel with Theodor Zwinger (1533–1588), receiving his Dr.med. in 1570. In 1573 he published his important early work Philosophiae triumphus, the first draft of a Protestant metaphysics in three parts: a theological anthropology, the principles of metaphysics, and a speculative doctrine of God. His f…

Taurus, Calvisius

(183 words)

Author(s): Lakmann, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Lukios Kalbenus Tauros; 2nd cent. ce), Middle Platonic philosopher from Beirut, who taught in Athens. His student Aulus Gellius painted a vivid picture of everyday school life and the personality of his teacher in his Noctes Atticae. Taurus wrote numerous monographs and commentaries on individual dialogues of Plato. Several fragments of his writings have been preserved in the work of John Philoponus, in which Taurus painstakingly analyzes passages of the Timaeus to show that according to Plato the world is uncreated and imperishable. Like most Midd…

Tausen, Hans

(144 words)

Author(s): Lausten, Martin Schwarz
[German Version] (1494, Birkende, Funen, Denmark – 1561, Ribe), Lutheran Reformer. As a friar of the Order of St. John, he studied in Copenhagen, Rostock, Leuven, and finally in 1523/1524 in Wittenberg, where he immediately broke with the Roman church. Moving to Viborg in 1525 and Copenhagen in 1529, he was one of the leading Danish Reformers. He wrote polemical and liturgical works, translated the Pentateuch from Hebrew into Danish, and composed homilies for all the Sundays and feasts of the church year. Theologically he was a more staunch disciple of Luther than were the other ¶ Danish Re…

Tax Collectors (New Testament)

(339 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Tax collectors (τελώνης/ telṓnēs) appear only in the Synoptic Gospels: in the context of Jesus’ table fellowship (Mark 2:15f. par.; Luke 15:1f.; 19:5f.), in the calling of disciples (Mark 2:14 par.), and in passages that make a special point of Jesus’ friendship with them (Matt 11:19 par.; also Luke 19:1–10). Although tax collectors are mentioned alongside sinners (Mark 2:15f. par.; Matt 11:19 par.; Luke 15:1), prostitutes (Matt 21:31f.), and Gentiles (Matt 18:17), despite their bein…

Tax Policy

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Kirchhof, Paul
[German Version] Taxes are the financial intrument of the liberal state. A state that guarantees the freedom of profession and ownership in its constitution and thereby places the productive factors capital and labor in private hands makes a structural decision to renounce state-run corporations and is therefore compelled to meet its financial needs by claiming a share in the ¶ success of private economic activities. Taxes are the necessary precondition of a free economy. Economic life relies on the exchange of services. Manufacturers, distributors, and service provid…

Taylor, James Hudson

(209 words)

Author(s): Tang, Edmond
[German Version] (May 21, 1832, Barnsley, Yorkshire – Jun 3, 1905, China). Destined from birth by his father to be a missionary to China, following a conversion experience at age 17 Taylor accepted this call. At the age of 21, he went to China on behalf of the China Evangelical Mission but was soon dissatisfied with its missionary strategy and practice. In 1865 he founded the nondenominational China Inland Mission (CIM); unlike other missions, the CIM did not remain near the coast but concentrated…

Taylor, Jeremy

(269 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug, 15, 1613, Cambridge, UK – Aug 13, 1667, Lisburn, Ireland). The son of a local barber, Taylor studied at Caius College, Cambridge, before becoming a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford (1636). He was then appointed chaplain to archbishop W. Laud and, somewhat later, to Charles I; in 1638 he became rector of Uppingham, Rutland. He was awarded a doctorate for his work, The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy (1642). While serving as royal chaplain during the Civil War, he was captured and imprisoned. After his release, he lived quietly in secl…

Taylor, Nathaniel William

(159 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (Jun 23, 1786, New Milford, CT – Mar 10, 1858, New Haven, CT). After graduating at Yale in 1807, Taylor studied theology with T. Dwight and was ordained pastor of the First Congregational Church of New Haven (1812–1822). From 1822 to 1858 he served as professor of theology at Yale, where he articulated the highly controversial “New Haven Theology,” a version of Edwardsian (J. Edwards) Calvinism that sought to promote revival (Revival/Revival movements: II) and evangelical piety, i…

Taylor, Vincent

(194 words)

Author(s): Hooker, Morna
[German Version] (Jan 1, 1887, Edenfield, Lancashire, England – Nov 28, 1968, Winchester), Methodist minister and New Testament scholar; educated at Richmond College, London (1907–1910); tutor (1930), and later principal (1936–1953), at Headingley College, Leeds; Fellow of the British Academy in 1954; President of Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas in 1954; and received the Burkitt Medal for Biblical Studies in 1960. With his emphasis on the importance of historical investigation and biblical theo…

Taylor, William

(211 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (1765, Norwich – Mar 5, 1836, Norwich), renowned English translator and literary critic. Taylor’s father instructed him in foreign language correspondence for the family business and sent him abroad in 1779. After stays in Holland, France, and Italy, the young man had mastered French and Italian. After a brief stay in England in 1781, he spent a year in Detmold, where he discovered a love for the German language and German literature. When the family business was dissolved in 1791…

Taylor, William M.

(194 words)

Author(s): Anderson, Allan H.
[German Version] (May 2, 1821, Rockbridge, VA – May 28, 1902, Palo Alto, CA). Ordained a Methodist minister in 1842 and an active worker in the National Association for the Promotion of Holiness, Taylor was called to California in 1847, where he became known as “California Taylor.” He founded the first Methodist church in San Francisco and conducted evangelistic open-air meetings. In 1870 Taylor arrived in India, where he became an early promoter of an indigenous church and the Three-Self Movement ( Pauline Methods of Missionary Work, 1879). His missionary activity even took him …

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich

(329 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Burkhard
[German Version] (May 7, 1840, Votkinsk, in the central Urals – Nov 6, 1893, St. Petersburg), the most important 19th-century Russian composer and the first to enjoy world renown during his own lifetime. The artist’s uninterrupted popularity contrasts markedly with the composer’s personal life – depressive, homosexual, bohemian, and tendentially anthropophobic. As a child, Tchaikovsky’s musical talent was not encouraged consistently; at the age of ten, he had to go to St. Petersburg to prepare for…

Teacher Education

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Scheilke, Christoph-Th.
[German Version] The education of teachers is concerned with the professional learning, knowledge, skills, and actions expected of teachers. Official evaluation studies are voicing increasingly urgent demands for a stronger professionalization and action orientation of teacher education (for the USA, cf. the studies of the NCATE; for Europe, the SIGMA project). The Mission Statement of Michigan State University places particular emphasis on the objective of contributing to the reform and improveme…

Teacher of Righteousness

(7 words)

[German Version] Qumran

Teachers

(2,641 words)

Author(s): Rau, Eckhard | Köpf, Ulrich | Lämmermann, Godwin
[German Version] I. Earliest Christianity According to CIJ 2, 1266 and passim, religious teachers known as διδάσκαλος/ didáskalos or רב/ rab (addressed as: διδάσκαλε/ didáskale; רבי/ rabbi; rabbi) existed in Palestine prior to 70 ce (Zimmermann). All four Gospels portray Jesus as a teacher with a circle of disciples who were also responsible for the preservation of his teaching. Q (Logia/Sayings Source/Q), furthermore, emphasizes the teacher’s superiority over the disciple (Luke 6:40 par.). Mark has Jesus being addressed as a διδάσκαλε or ῥαββί/ rhabbí who, in a singular show …

Teaching Authority

(2,562 words)

Author(s): Wiedenhofer, Siegfried | Lämmermann, Godwin
[German Version] I. Christianity 1. Catholic Church. The Catholic understanding of the church’s teaching authority relates to the two wellsprings of the church, Easter and Pentecost. It refers to the authorized and authoritative representation of Christ through certain ministries and office within the public community of the church. For this purpose, specific individuals are chosen and sent (Matt 28:16–20; Mark 3:13–19; 2 Cor 3–6 etc.) It also relates to the gifts of God’s Spirit in the diversity of gi…

Teaching, Duties and Freedom in

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph | Rees, Wilhelm | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. German Law Along with artistic freedom, Basic Law art. 5 § 3 guarantees freedom of “scholarship, research, and teaching.” The association of freedom of teaching with scholarship and research shows that the guarantee of the Basic Law applies only to scholarly teaching, i.e. teaching that presents the findings of one’s own research (and examines critically the findings of others). Freedom of teaching thus relates (albeit not exclusively) to teaching in public and private universitie…
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