Sacramentum Mundi Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Karl Rahner with Cornelius Ernst and Kevin Smyth.
Advisor for the online edition: Karen Kilby, Durham University

Sacramentum Mundi Online is the online edition of the famous six volume English reference work in Catholic Theology, edited (in 1968-1970) by Karl Rahner, one of the main Catholic theologians of the 20th century. Sacramentum Mundi: An Encyclopedia of Theology was originally published by Herder Verlag, and is now available online at Brill.

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(820 words)

Author(s): Ferdinand Maass
The State Church system of the Habsburgs had been built up systematically from the Middle Ages onward through political power as well as papal privileges; it helped the Church to make a number of improvements, especially in carrying through monastic reform after the Western schism, while later it was an obstacle to the advance of Protestantism and was even able to reconcile to the Church many who had deserted it. But it was also the most important force in building up the power of the modern Sta…


(1,888 words)

Author(s): Jean Daniélou
The word Judaeo-Christian (sometimes Jewish-Christian) is used to describe two quite distinct entities. It can mean the whole corpus of the Old and New Testaments, and in this sense we speak of the Jewish-Christian revelation. It can also signify a form of Christianity whose habits of thought and social structures are specifically Jewish. If today there were a Christian community in Palestine which used Hebrew as its liturgical language, it could be called Jewish-Christian in the second sense. T…

Judaism and Christianity

(2,296 words)

Author(s): Clemens Thoma
A. General Observations There are many points of contact and contrast between Judaism and Christianity, arising from the ОТ, the NT and from post-biblical Judaism. Hence the ideal and historical boundaries of Judaism and Christianity often cut across one another, and both latent and open conflicts as regards “marginal” relationships between the two faiths are hardly avoidable. Since it would be wrong to erect either the links or the contrasts into absolutes, it is well to consider the common origin…

Judaism - Judaism from Ezra to A.D. 70

(1,684 words)

Author(s): Clemens Thoma
Part of Judaism: 1. Judaism from Ezra to A.D. 70 2. Origin and History 3. The Religion 4. The Philosophy 1. The concept. Early Judaism (sometimes called “late Judaism”, by comparison with classical ОТ times) is understood in various ways. As a period, it is sometimes taken to run from about the date of the composition of the Book of Daniel ( c. 160 B.C.) to the end of the Jewish wars under the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 140). Others take a longer period — from the time of the activity of Ezra and Nehemiah in Jerusalem ( c. 450 B.C.) to the final formation of the Talmuds ( c. A.D. 500). For others, early Jud…

Judaism - Origin and History

(3,744 words)

Author(s): Clemens Thoma
Part of Judaism: 1. Judaism from Ezra to A.D. 70 2. Origin and History 3. The Religion 4. The Philosophy A. The Correct Approach Judaism is a very complex phenomenon, embracing religious, social, political, ethnic and historical elements. There are three main difficulties in the way of seeing it clearly as it really is. Firstly, each of the components mentioned cannot but involve the whole phenomenon of Judaism, so that there is an immediate danger of distortion if, say, the religion or the social structure of Judaism …

Judaism - The Philosophy

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Arthur A. Cohen
Part of Judaism: 1. Judaism from Ezra to A.D. 70 2. Origin and History 3. The Religion 4. The Philosophy 1. Introduction. There is no Jewish philosophy as such. There are only Jewish philosophies. All of the emphases and modulations of Western philosophy — Greek, Hellenistic, Christian scholasticism and Moslem rationalism and skepticism, German idealism, and contemporary existentialism have been registered within Jewish thought. The Jewish people did not begin to philosophize because of an irresistible inner compulsion to do so. Rather it may be argued that …

Judaism - The Religion

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Clemens Thoma
Part of Judaism: 1. Judaism from Ezra to A.D. 70 2. Origin and History 3. The Religion 4. The Philosophy 1. The situation of Jewish religion. In contrast with Christianity above all, with Islam and with Buddhism, the Jewish religion remained throughout its history almost exclusively the property of one people, the Jews. This concrete link with a definite people and the resulting fewness of the adherents makes it impossible to designate Judaism as a world religion. All that can be said is that it is not merely a national…


(1,418 words)

Author(s): Klaus Mörsdorf
In the legal terminology of the Church, jurisdiction is the authoritative power to govern ( potestas jurisdictionis seu regiminis, CIC, can. 196), which was bestowed on the Church in the metaphor of the shepherd (cf. Jn 10:1– 28; 21:15–17); hence it is sometimes called, in contrast to the power of teaching and sanctifying, the pastoral office. Jurisdiction is exercised in the external and internal forum, in the sacramental and the non- sacramental realm. In contrast to the power of orders, which comes from a conse…

Justice - Moral Theology

(2,913 words)

Author(s): José María Díez-Alegría
Part of Justice: 1. Scripture 2. Moral Theology The notion of justice is fundamental to the human spirit. All men have some sort of aspiration, at least obscurely, towards justice. From the beginning, the notion of justice has been attached to the sphere of religion, as may be seen in Plato’s Gorgias, 507 b, and Republic, I, 331 a. In the most ancient texts of the Bible, the first monuments of supernatural revelation, there is also a bond between justice and religion (in the covenant by which Israel was bound to Yahweh). “Abraham believed the Lord; …

Justice - Scripture

(3,031 words)

Author(s): Klaus Berger
Part of Justice: 1. Scripture 2. Moral Theology 1. The social sense of justice in the Old Testament. The ОТ idea of צרקּה (usually δικαιοσύνη in the LXX), unlike justice as conceived of in terms of objective theological principles, is not determined by permanent and immutable norms of human behaviour such that a man is accounted just when he acts in conformity with them. Throughout the whole of the ОТ in general, צרקּה is a style of action, in a relation of fellowship between partners, which is the permanent constituent of this relationship and hence has its norm in…


(2,276 words)

Author(s): Ricardo Franco
The concept of justification is a relative one. To be justified is not merely to be just but also to be acknowledged as such. And so it implies a relation with a judgment rather than a mode of being. Use of the term to designate a new aspect of the new being that Christianity gives us, dates from St. Paul’s controversies with the Judaizers. They held that a man is just if he observes the law by the minute keeping of particular commandments rather than by a general disposition to serve and love G…