Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Online

Purchase Access
Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Editor-in-Chief: Oliver Scharbrodt
Editors: Samim Akgonul, Ahmet Alibašić, Jorgen S. Nielsen, Egdūnas Račius

The Yearbook of Muslims in Europe is an essential resource for analysis of Europe’s dynamic Muslim populations. This comprehensive annual reference work summarizes significant activities, trends and developments, and features the most current statistical information available from more than 40 European countries.

For more information: see Brill.com

(While many Islamic terms originate in Arabic, many have also acquired local variations. In the following we try to cover the most common variations, and the user will occasionally have to use a bit of imagination to adjust spellings.)

adhan/azan/ezan

call to prayer.

ahl al-bayt/al al-bayt

the family/descendants of the Prophet.

Ahmadi/Ahmadiyya

reform movement founded in India in the 19th century and widely regarded by other Muslims as heretical.

Alevi

movement with roots dating back to the 12th century, often esoteric in nature and with links to Shi’ism; today especially strong among Turks and Kurds of Eastern Anatolian origin.

Arba’een

Shi’i religious observance, forty days after the day of ‘Ashura’, to commemorate the death of Husayn ibn Ali (3rd Shi’i Imam).

‘Ashura’

festival on the 10th of Muharram (1st month of the Islamic calendar) marking the death of Husayn ibn Ali (3rd Shi’i imam) at the battle of Karbala in 680; a central Shi’i religious observance.

bayram

festival (esp. Turkish for ‘Id, q.v).

Bektashi

a Sufi order with strong Ottoman roots; marginalised during the mid-19th century Ottoman reforms and banned with other Sufi orders by the Turkish Republic in the 1920s.

burqa

specifically the Afghan-style female full body covering, incl. the face; in common usage in Europe now taken to mean any form of female full body and face covering.

cem

central Alevi communal dance ritual similar to the sema ritual of the Mevlevi Sufi order.

cemevi

place in which Alevi cem ritual is performed.

da’wa

Islamic term for missionary or proselytising activities.

dershane

“cram school”, type of specialised school.

dervish

a common term for Sufi.

dhikr

ritual practised by devotees of a Sufi tradition.

fatwa

statement of opinion on a point of theology or law issued by an authority in response to an application.

hafiz

person who knows the Qur’an by heart.

hajj

the annual pilgrimage at Mecca at the beginning of the 12th month of the Islamic calendar; the highpoint is ‘Id al-Adha.

halal

permitted.

haram

prohibited.

hijab

head scarf worn by women

hijra

migration of the Prophet and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Yathrib) in 622CE.

husayniyya

popular centre of learning and devotion in Shi’i Islam.

‘id

festival.

‘Id al-Adha

Feast of the Sacrifice during the pilgrimage at Mecca.

‘Id al-Fitr

festival ending the fast of Ramadan.

iftar

breaking of the fast at the end of the day during Ramadan, increasingly celebrated in invited company by mosques, churches and other organisations.

imam

religious leader, most commonly the one who leads the congregation at the regular prayers; also used about prominent scholars and spiritual leaders. Among Shi’i Muslims, a legitimate leader of the community.

jum‘a

Friday noon prayer.

khutba

sermon.

qurban/kurban

sacrifice, as in Turkish kurban bayramı (‘Id al-Adha).

Lailat al-qadr

the “night of power,” 27th Ramadan, the celebration of the revelation of the Qur’an.

madhhab

school of law or theology.

madrasa/medrese

school at any level, usually elementary and high Islamic.

majlis

council or body governing Muslim community organisations, in Southeastern Europe in particular.

masjid

mosque.

mawlid/mevlud

birthday of the Prophet Muhammad.

mizar/miziar

cemetery

mu’adhdhin/muezzin

the person who calls to prayer.

mufti

person who issues fatwa; in some modern states the title of the leading Islamic official.

muftiate

office or institution of mufti.

nafaqa

maintenance and/or alimony payment after divorce.

Nawruz/Nevruz

New Year in the Persian/Turkish tradition.

nikah

marriage formalised in the Islamic tradition.

niqab

female face covering.

ra’is al-‘ulama’ or just

“dean of the scholars,” applied in some countries to

ra’is or reis

the official head of the Muslim community.

Ramadan

the 9th month of the Islamic calendar, the month of fasting.

riba

(unlawful) interest on capital.

rijaset/riyaset

governing council within centralised Muslim community organisations in Southeastern Europe, usually headed by the chief mufti.

sabantuj

Tatar and Bashkir cultural festival.

sadaqa

alms given at various occasions, often in connection with a religious festival.

salah/salat

prescribed prayers five times a day.

shari’a

Islamic law and ethics, the principles of good Islamic behaviour.

shaykh/sheikh

leader of a congregation, especially of a Sufi character; honorific for someone learned.

sheikh al-islam

title of leading Muslim scholar or head of official Muslim community organisation in a country; originally, an Ottoman title and therefore used in Muslim communities in regions that were part of the Ottoman Empire.

Shi’i/Shi’ism

the branches within Islam which trace their authority through the descendants of ‘Ali, the Prophet’s nephew and son-in-law; make up 12–15% of the total number of Muslims worldwide.

Sufi/Sufism

the mystical tradition.

sukuk

commonly used for shari’a compliant financial bonds.

Sunni/Sunnism

the majority tradition within Islam, sometimes (mistakenly) called “orthodox.”

talaq

divorce by repudiation.

tariqa/tarikat

Sufi order.

tekke/teke

a Sufi meeting place (Turkish).

turba/turbe

tomb of a venerated person (“saint”), often the object of popular devotion.

umma

the global community of believers.

‘umra

the lesser pilgrimage at Mecca taking place at times other than hajj.

waqf/vakf

religious foundation (of property) providing income for religious, charitable or educational purposes.

zakah/zakat

obligatory almsgiving.

zawiya

a Sufi meeting place (Arabic).

zikr

see dhikr.

ziyara

visiting family graves or tombs of Muslim saints at set times of year.

  • Volume 9 (2016)
  • List of Authors
  • Preface
  • Islamophobia, Muslimophobia: From Words to Acts. By Samim Akgönül
  • Volume 8 (2015)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Researching Muslims in Europe: Four Decades of Development. By Jørgen S. Nielsen
  • Volume 7 (2014)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Islams in Europe: Satellites or a Universe Apart? By Jonathan Laurence
  • Volume 6 (2013)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Counting Muslims: Censuses, Categories, Policies and the Construction of Islam in Europe. By Kerem Öktem
  • Volume 5 (2012)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • European Islams and Muslim Europes: Some Thoughts about Studying Europe's Contemporary Islam. By Konstantinos Tsitselikis
  • Volume 4 (2011)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Volume 3 (2010)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Volume 2 (2009)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword
  • Volume 1 (2008)
  • List of Authors
  • Foreword