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Modern definitions of intoxication anticipate some of the problems that are encountered in Indian sources, as will become apparent from the following three examples.

According to K. Hoheisel (2004), intoxication is an “increased excitement” (“gesteigerte Erregung”) that is caused either by psychoactive drugs or certain kinds of behavior (e.g. monotonous movements, sexuality, dance). This “increased excitement” makes it possible to reach a su…

Cite this page
Oliver Hellwig, “Intoxication”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Edited by: Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan. Consulted online on 24 February 2019 <>
First published online: 2012

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