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Languages and Literatures of the Vernaculars: South Indian
(8,589 words)

Tamil Literature and Hindu Traditions

Early Literary Production: Paripāṭal and Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai

Toward the end of the Caṅkam period of Tamil literary history (1st–3rd cents. CE; see also Tamil Nadu), we witness a distinct shift in literary form and content. The Paripāṭal, a late 4th-century CE (?) anthology of poems, signals this move away from the largely…

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Venkatesan, Archana, “Languages and Literatures of the Vernaculars: South Indian”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online, Edited by: Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan. Consulted online on 25 March 2019 <>
First published online: 2018

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