Espionage
(613 words)

Espionage

Clandestine gathering of information about the military opponent, usually through agents acting on behalf of intelligence services. In times of war espionage is regulated under international law. Articles 29 and 30 of the Annex to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land (1907) recognized espionage as a legitimate means of warfare and required that a spy caught in the act must not be punished without a proper trial. In World War I the intelligence services of all belligerent nations recruited agents for o…

Cite this page
Bavendamm, Gundula, “Espionage”, in: Brill’s Digital Library of World War I. Consulted online on 24 November 2017 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-3786_dlws1_beww1_en_0186>
First published online: 2015



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