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Zimmerwald Movement
(467 words)

Zimmerwald Movement

An alliance of antiwar Socialists from the belligerent states, named after the town where it first met (September 5–8, 1915, at Zimmerwald near Bern).

The aim of the movement, which came to symbolize socialist pacifism, was to revive international cooperation, which had been disrupted by the First World War. The first conference was initiated by the Swiss social democrat Robert Grimm, and those attending included Lenin and Zinoviev for the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party, and Adolph Hoffmann and Georg Ledebour for the Social Democratic Party of Germany.…

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Mühlhausen, Walter, “Zimmerwald Movement”, in: Brill’s Digital Library of World War I. Consulted online on 17 June 2019 <>
First published online: 2015

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