Azazel עזאזל
(2,186 words)

I. Name

Both the etymology and the meaning of the name ʿazāʾzēl, which appears in the Old Testament only in Lev. 16.8, Lev. 10 [twice], Lev. 26, are not completely clear. Although the etymological hypothesis ʿzʾzl < *ʿzzʾl < ʿzz (‘to be strong’) + ʾl (‘god’), i.e. the result of a consonantal metathesis, appears to be the most likely explanation (Janowski & Wilhelm 1993:128 with n. 98, cf. the form ʿzzʾl in 4Q 180, 1:8; 11QTemple 26:13f etc., see Tawil 1980:58–59), the meaning of the name ʿzʾzl remains c…

Cite this page
B. Janowski, “Azazel עזאזל”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 22 January 2019 <>

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