(797 words)

I. Name

According to Mesopotamian tradition the border of the netherworld was marked by a river called Ḫubur in Akkadian and i7-kur-ra “river of the netherworld”, i7-lu2-ku2-ku2 “man-devouring river” or i7-lu2-ru-gu2 “river that runs against man” in Sumerian. Hubur, according to the dictionaries (AHW 352 and CAD H 219) a Sumerian loan-word, also occurs as a synonym for the whole of the netherworld (W. G. Lambert, AfO. 17 [1954–56] 312:9; BWL 58:7) and as the name of the place of the river-ordeal (CAD H …

Cite this page
H. D. Galter, “Hubur”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 23 January 2019 <>

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