(1,238 words)

I. Name

The association of צדק and צדקה (‘righteousness’) with the base of the king’s throne in Ps. 89.15; Ps. 97.2; Prov. 16.12 and (after emendation) l has been compared with the hieroglyphic representation of the important Egyptian concept of ‘order’: m3ʿt. The hieroglyph for m3ʿt shows that the original meaning of the word must have been ‘base’, to wit the base of the divine throne connected with the Primeval Mound. But the hieroglyph was not used as a designation for ‘base’ but for m3ʿt. An etymologic…

Cite this page
K. A. D. Smelik, “Maʿat”, in: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online, Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst. Consulted online on 22 January 2019 <>

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