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In the 18th century the term “Ultramontanism” (Lat. “beyond the mountains,” here meaning the Alps) came into polemical use to describe a European Roman Catholicism that was oriented to the pope. The movement developed historically in reaction to national church movements such as Gallicanism, and theologically in opposition to the theses of Justinus Febronius (pseud. of J. N. von Hontheim [1701–90]) that would exalt the rights of bishops at the expense of the papacy (Episcopacy 1). Those who supported papal infallibility and papalism were Ultramontanists. Most of the interes…

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Kirchner, Hubert, “Ultramontanism”, in: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. Consulted online on 21 May 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2211-2685_eco_U.5>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004169678, 20080512

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