Contemporaries were already using the term Fronde for the political, social, and economic conflicts between 1648 and 1653 that escalated in a series of upheavals and civil wars and plunged France into a deep internal crisis.
In the 1630s, the government of Louis XIII and his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu was dominated by the effort to increase the state’s revenues to cover the costs of France’s involvement in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648). The “wartime regimen” of Richelieu included not only quadrupling the tax burden between 1630 and 1640 but also the introduction of i…
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Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online
, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012.
Consulted online on 22 July 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_019522>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20180208