In medieval and early modern Germany, the term “Haken” could refer to one of three things: a plowing implement (the digging-stick plow), a subunit of a hide (Hufe [hide]), or a peasant taxation district.
The division between digging-stick and sod-turning/plowing technologies in Europe went back to the 3rd century BCE if not earlier [2. 157]. The symmetrical, usually wooden digging-stick plow cut and disturbed the soil evenly, no deeper or more broadly in any one place (and so was also called the rake plow); this was initially in more widespread …
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Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online
, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012.
Consulted online on 19 July 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_020585>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20180915