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Jewish economic life
(1,189 words)

1. Iberian peninsula and eastern Europe

 Spanish Jews were forced to choose between conversion and persecution in 1492 (Refugees of conscience; Sephardim). Half of them fled to Portugal (where they were forcibly baptized in 1497), North Africa, northern Italy, and the Ottoman Empire (the Jewish communities in Istanbul, Thessaloniki/Salonika, and Izmir/Smyrna received substantial reinforcement; Jewish society). In the German Empire, most cit…

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Kaufmann, Uri, “Jewish economic life”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 16 July 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_021740>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20190124



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