Caucasian and Central Asian women are currently in a process of constant
negotiation and renegotiation of their womanness, finding themselves
between a revival of Muslim norms and traditions, a Western capitalist
influence, and a recent Soviet history, all with completely different
standards of what it means to be both a woman and a citizen.
From the earliest days of rule, the Soviet Communists regarded the
inclusion of Central Asian and Caucasian women in their very concept
Cite this page
Gumppenberg, Marie-Carin von,
“Citizenship: Caucasus and Central Asia”, in:
Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph.
Consulted online on 23 February 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0068a>