Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Political-Social Movements: Unions and Workers' Movements: Iran
(1,216 words)

The labor movement and trade unions in Iran began in the early twentieth century. They have not been homogeneous institutions; some have had grassroots support and some have been agents of the state. They survived long periods of authoritarian regimes. At different historical periods their actions have confirmed a profound reactivation of civil society (Bayat 1987, Ladjevardi 1985). However, they remained male dominated organizations. In 2003, 30 percent of formal sector workers in state enterprises and 6 percent of formal sector workers in privat…

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Povey, Elaheh Rostami, “Political-Social Movements: Unions and Workers' Movements: Iran”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 22 May 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0136b>
First published online: 2009



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