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Burayda b. al-Ḥuṣayb

(985 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Abbas, Najam
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Aslamī (d. 63/683), a Companion of the Prophet. Although his name was ʿĀmir, he was known as Burayda (Ibn Ḥajar, Nuzhat, 1/120). Nothing is recorded about his life before he embraced Islam. According to reports, when the Prophet Muḥammad migrated to Medina, he passed by a locality called Ghamīm, and when Burayda came face to face with the Prophet, he embraced Islam on the spot (al-Ṭabarī, 534; Khalīfa, 68; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, 1/146). Subsequent to his conversion, about eighty members of the al-Aslamī tribe also embraced Islam, a fact which reflects B…


(2,682 words)

Author(s): Matin, Payman | Abbas, Najam
Bast is a place of refuge and sanctuary for those facing prosecution or injustice, or seeking to safeguard their rights. Furthermore, criminals, those accused of crimes or under suspicion were able to seek shelter there from the authorities. The act of going to a sanctuary ( bast) and taking refuge therein is known as bast-nishīnī (refuge seeking). Etymology The term is derived from upastām (prefix upa and root verb stā) meaning help, assistance and aid in Old Persian (see Sharp, 146; Kent, 176); and ustām or ōstām meaning ‘insistence’ ( pāfishārī), ‘resistance’ ( īstādigī) and ‘asylum …

Bashīr b. Saʿd

(696 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Abbas, Najam
Bashīr b. Saʿd, Abū Nuʿmān (d. 12/633), a member of the Banū Mālik clan of Khazraj, was a Companion of the Prophet Muḥammad, from the Anṣār (the ‘Helpers’) (Ibn Hishām, 2/101; Khalīfa, 1/210–211; Ibn Haẓm, 363–364). Bashīr pledged allegiance to the Prophet at the second pledge of ʿAqaba along with a group from Yathrib (Medina) (Ibn Hishām, 2/101; al-Balādhurī, Ansāb, 1/244, Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, 1/172). He took part in various battles, including Badr and Uḥud (Ibn Hishām, 2/368; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, 1/172; Ibn al-Athīr, 1/195). Bashīr b. Saʿd was despatched by the Prophet as leader of …


(1,901 words)

Author(s): Sedghi, Hamed | Abbas, Najam
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Sharaf al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Saʿīd b. Ḥammād al-Dalāṣī (608–694 or 695/1211–1295 or 1296), poet, scholar, scribe and accountant. His family traced their origins back to the large Berber Ṣanhāja tribe of Morocco. It is generally accepted that al-Būṣīrī was born in Egypt in his mother’s village of Dalāṣ, on 1 Shawwāl 608/7 March 1212 (although the years 607 and 610 are also given), but he was known by the name Būṣīr (or Abū Ṣīr), because he grew up in his father’s village, Būṣīr, in …

Bishr b. al-Sarī

(957 words)

Author(s): Alavi, Mohammad Kazem | Abbas, Najam
, Abū ʿAmr (d. ca. 195/811), a muḥaddith (traditionist) from Baṣra who settled in Mecca. He is sometimes regarded as a member of the Jahmiyya, a group who believed in a rational interpretation of the Qurʾān in accordance with the doctrine of Jahm b. Ṣafwān (d. 128/746). The year of his death is also given as 196/812 (al-Dhahabī, Tadhkira, 1/356, cf. Siyar, 9/334). Assuming that he died at the age of sixty-three (lunar years) (al-Fāsī, 3/370; cf. al-Bukhārī, al-Ta⁠ʾrīkh al-kabīr, 1(2)/75), he may have been born around 132–133/750–751. Bishr grew up in Baṣra and later moved to Mecca …


(1,195 words)

Author(s): Dianat, Ali Akbar | Abbas, Najam
( Bölük), a term commonly used for Iranian administrative divisions before 1316 Sh./1937, and also a military term in the old Ottoman military. Bulūk (pl. bulūkāt) (Muḥammad Pādshāh, 1/766; Tabrīzī, 1/302) is a Turkic word from the verb bölmek (to split into parts or sections), meaning a ‘segment’ or ‘group’ (of people, animals, villages inter alia) (Barbier, 1/346; Clauson, 339; Pakalın, 1/242). In the Persian Context In Persia this term came into use during the 7th/13th and 8th/14th centuries under the Īlkhānids (Rashīd al-Dīn, 1/195). In sources from that p…

Dābbat al-Arḍ

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj | Abbas, Najam
, a Qurʾānic term for a creature or beast that lives and moves on the earth, it has a special meaning in a tradition regarding the signs which will appear at the end of time ( ashrāṭ al-sāʿa). The term dābba appears in its literal sense in the Qurʾānic verses 6:38, 11:6, 16:49, 27:82 and 34:14. However, the term has quite a different connotation in 27:82: ‘When the word is fulfilled against them, We shall bring forth a creature ( dābba) out of the earth, to speak to them, as people had no faith in Our revelations’; it takes on a deeper significance when read along with the …


(2,738 words)

Author(s): Manesh, Hossein Mahdavi | Abbas, Najam
, placing a dead body into the earth by digging a grave in the ground, following which the body is covered with soil (see Ṭabaṭābāʾī, 1/436). The Islamic term used in jurisprudence and religious works is dafn or tadfīn, and matters preceding and following the act are usually discussed in juridical manuals in the chapter on funerary rituals ( janāʾiz). Although the topic is not related directly to worship, the recitation of funeral prayers prior to an interrment means that many religious books include it in the chapter on prayers ( ṣalāt) placed under the section on worship. As regards…

Balūchī Literature

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Bulookbashi, Ali A. | Abbas, Najam
Balūchī Literature, the Balūchī literary heritage, which is partially oral, consists of poetry on epics, love, history, society, ethics, advice and admonition. Their corpus of oral poetry forms part of the Balūch nation’s collective memory in verse form and describes both fictional and factual issues such as episodes of epic heroism and love as well as the ethnic and geographic origins of the Balūch people. Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch points out that the Balūch had neither a written literature nor poets such as Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī or Saʿdī. However, like the Be…

Burhān al-Dīn Jānam

(2,414 words)

Author(s): Afsharian, Marjan | Abbas, Najam | Negahban, Farzin
(d. 990/1582), a poet of the Indian subcontinent and a Sufi affiliated to the Chishtiyya Sufi Order ( ṭarīqa). His father, Mīrānjī Shams al-ʿUshshāq (d. 902/1497), was also his spiritual master in Sufism (Burhān al-Dīn, 5) and among the most renowned Sufi masters of the Deccan (Nasīm, 260–264; Qādirī, 37; Aḥmad, 94; Bhatnāgar, 18–21). The family genealogy suggests that, sixteen generations earlier, the two were linked as descendants of Imam Ḥusayn (Burhān al-Dīn, introd., 12). Mīrānjī was considered to be the reviver of the Chishtiyya order in the Deccan, while his son…


(1,136 words)

Author(s): Mazaheri, Mas‘ud Habibi | Abbas, Najam
, a grouping of the Jabriyya or Mujabbira (determinists), who are said to have taken their name from a certain Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā who was called ‘Burghūth’ (a pejorative name which in Arabic means ‘flea’). Some sources say he was also known as al-Kātib (lit. ‘the secretary’) (Ibn Ḥazm, 3/33), and had the kunya of Abū ʿĪsā (Ibn Taymiyya, 1/206). Watt ( Formative, 203) tentatively identifies him as Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Sīrāfī. Little is known about his life and thought or why he was called Burghūth, apart from the fact that he was a contemporary of the Muʿtazil…


(34,553 words)

Author(s): Waley, M. I. | Semsar, Mohammad Hassan | Tehrani, Hamid | Afsari, Hamid Rez | Abbas, Najam | Et al.
1. Calligraphy in the Arab World Through the spread of the Arab people a new language and alphabet found their way to a large area of the world, from Spain to Turkistan, along with a new religious dispensation. This article considers the art of handwriting, as distinct from details of the history of Arabic writing systems. The Arabic letters readily lend themselves to a wide variety of expressive forms, not only in manuscripts and other written documents but also in architectural and other inscription…


(37,082 words)

Author(s): Ahmadian, Bahram Amir | Abbas, Najam | Maghsoodi, Hamid Reza | Fatehi-nezhad, Enayatollah | Hirtenstein, Stephen | Et al.
Baṣra, a province and historic city in south-east Iraq. Contents 1. Geography 2. History (General) 3. Historical Formation of Baṣra’s Urban Environment 4. Theology ( Kalām) A. Early Encounters with Theological Issues B. The Emergence of the Formal Schools of Theology C. Theological Perspectives of Traditionist Circles 5. Qurʾānic Sciences A. Reading (Qirāʾa) B. Qurʾān Codices ( Maṣāḥif, sing. Muṣḥaf) C. Exegesis (Tafsīr) 6. Jurisprudence ( Fiqh) A. Preliminary Background B. Fiqh in Baṣra: From Taqdīr (Determination of Meaning) to Tadwīn (Compilation) C. …