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(3,267 words)

Author(s): Alois Haider
A. General Notions In philosophy, idealism is the general term for the speculative position which may be described as follows: 1. When considering the similarities and diversities, the identities and the differences of which reality is composed, its intention is always directed to the universal, to what is common in the manifold individuals. It looks to the dominant factor which embraces the many and subsumes them into the whole of reality. It aims on each level at the single concept which will make the multiple co…

Art - Concept and Meaning of Art

(3,916 words)

Author(s): Alois Haider
Part of Art: 1. Concept and Meaning of Art 2. Theories of Aesthetics A. The Word and the History of the Concept Art, like craft, in the widest sense of the term, means “cunning” (“know-how”), “skill” — man’s mastery of what he can do. From the Latin “ars”, which is a translation of the Greek τέχνη, it indicates primarily the realm of ποίησις, productive work, one of the three basic means whereby man installs himself in the world, the others being θεωρία, scientific knowledge for the sake of its truth, and πραξις, mor…

Person - Concept

(4,344 words)

Author(s): Max Müller | Alois Haider
Part of Person: 1. Concept 2. Man 1. Etymology: history of the concept. The word “person” comes from the Latin persona, usually derived from the verb personare, “to sound through”, though this is not certain. In medieval philosophy it was sometimes said to come from per se una, which is certainly false. Modern philology links it with the Etruscan persu, a word found written beside a representation of two masked figures. It was used to translate the Greek πρόσωπον, face, first in the sense of the actor’s mask, which designated his role. The theological and philosophical concept of perso…

Science - General

(5,325 words)

Author(s): Alois Haider | Max Müller
Part of Science: 1. General 2. Theory of Science 3. Science and Theology 1. General problems of definition. There are difficulties about establishing a precise definition of the term “science”. The definition itself has to be established scientifically. Moreover, it has to cover not just “science as such”, in the singular, but also the various different branches of science. Hence the tendency to try to derive the common features of the various branches of science from one particular science selected as prototype…