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Passive (Syntax)

(3,103 words)

Author(s): Amira Agameya
1. Structural properties of the passive An active sentence changes into the passive by undergoing a number of structural changes. First, the subject of the sentence is deleted. Second, the object becomes the subject of the sentence and receives nominative case. Third, the active verb changes into the passive by changing its vowels, the change being dependent upon the tense or type of the verb, as described below. Fourth, the verb agrees in person and gender with the new subject in the Verb-Subject order and in person, gender, and number in the Subject-Verb order. (1) našara l-kātib-u publis…

Subject

(3,178 words)

Author(s): Amira Agameya
1. Position in the sentence There are two types of sentences in Arabic, verbal and nominal, exhibiting two different word orders. The position of the subject in Arabic depends on the sentence type in which it appears. It may occupy either a sentence-initial position or appear following the verb or predicate. Arabic grammarians, as a result, give different names to the subject, depending on its position in the sentence. When it appears following the verb, the subject is called fāʿil lit. ‘doer [of the verb]’ or ‘ agent’, as the verb cannot stand alone without it. In subject/predica…