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Bābā Farīd al-Dīn Ganj Shikar

(2,733 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Negahban, Farzin
Bābā Farīd al-Dīn Ganj Shikar, or Shakar-Ganj (ca. 569–664/1174–1265), was one of the most revered and distinguished medieval Sufi mystics in India. Originally called Masʿūd, he was born in either 569/1174 or 571/1175 in the town of Kuthwāl in the district of Multān (Nizami, Life and Times, 11; Mīr Khurd, 101). Both Firishtah (2/383) and Ghulām Sarwar (1/304) cite 584/1188 as the year of his birth. The three primary sources for Bābā Farīd’s life and teaching come from the circle of Shaykh Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyāʾ, who was his devoted student for over eight years a…

Bakhtiyār Kākī

(2,152 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Brown, Keven
Bakhtiyār Kākī, Khʷājah Quṭb al-Dīn b. Kamāl al-Dīn al-Ushī, an eminent 7th/13th century Sufi mystic of the Indian subcontinent and one of the great ‘spiritual poles’ ( aqṭāb, sing. quṭb) of the Chishtī order. Although there is disagreement over his exact lineage, he is recognised as a descendant of the Prophet through al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī, with some tracing his lineage through Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (Ghulām Sarwar, 1/267). ¶ The date of Bakhtiyār Kākī’s birth is found variously as 582/1186 (Subhan, 210; Ṣafā, 3(2)/1318) or 569/1174 (cf. Dīn Kalīm, 41), in the small town…

Bahāʾ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Zakariyyāʾ Multānī

(2,297 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Negahban, Farzin
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Zakariyyāʾ Multānī, was a 6th–7th/12th–13th century Sufi master and propagator of the Suhrawardiyya ¶ Order in the Indian subcontinent. He was known as Bahāʾ al-Ḥaqq (‘Splendour of the Real’), although he had other titles including Ghawth al-ʿĀlamīn (‘Succour of the Worlds’), Bāz-i Safīd (‘White Falcon’) and Badr al-Mashāyikh (‘Full Moon of the Masters’). He was of Hāshimid descent, with his lineage reaching back to Asad b. Hāshim ʿAbd Manāf, ancestor of the Prophet. Bahāʾ al-Dīn’s ancestors migrated from Khʷārazm to Kūt Karūr (Kot Karor) in the vici…

Abū Bakr al-Warrāq

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Cooper, John
Abū Bakr al-Warrāq, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī al-Balkhī, a renowned Persian gnostic ( ʿārif) of the 3rd/9th century. He was born in Tirmidh, but lived in Balkh (al-Sulamī, 216; Anṣārī, 261–¶ 262; ʿAṭṭār, 2/87). Al-Warrāq's nephew was Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Tirmidhī (d. 279/892) author of the Musnad, one of the six classical Sunni compendia of ḥadīths ( al-ṣiḥāḥ al-sitta) (Anṣārī, 262; Jāmī, 123). Abū Bakr al-Warrāq was a companion of Aḥmad b. Khiḍrawayh (d. 240/854–855), and benefited greatly from his association with this master and from th…

Abū Sulaymān al-Dārānī

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Negahban, Farzin
Abū Sulaymān al-Dārānī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. ʿAṭiyya al-ʿAnasī al-Dārānī, was a Sufi sage of the 2nd–3rd/8th–9th century. Some called him ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAṭiyya, associating him with ¶ his grandfather (al-Sulamī, 68; Anṣārī, 39). He was called al-ʿAnasī due to his connection with the Banū ʿAnas b. Mālik, a tribe from Yemen (al-Samʿānī, 9/395; Ibn Khallikān, 3/131). He was born around 140/757 (al-Dhahabī, 10/182). He was born in a village in Damascus called Dāriyā (al-Khawlānī, 107; al-Sulamī, 68; Abū Nuʿaym, 9/254), and hence he was known as al-Dārānī, even though this nisba is…


(5,403 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Negahban, Farzin
, the oldest and most influential Sufi order in the Indian subcontinent. The order derives its name from Chisht, a village in greater Khurāsān in the vicinity of Herat in present-day Afghanistan (Nizami, Tārīkh, 135; Rizvi, 1/114). Originally an offshoot of the Adhamiyya Order which traced its lineage to Ibrāhīm Adham, the order became known as the Chishtiyya from the 4th/10th century, following the migration of Abū Isḥāq al-Shāmī (d. 329/941) to the village of Chisht. The lineage of the order is traced back to the Prophet Muḥammad as follows: Abū Isḥāq al-Shāmī, Khwājah ʿUlū al-Dīnawar…


(705 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Waley, M. I.
, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Sahl (d. 348/959), a mystic of Khurāsān who attained prominence in the chivalric movement known in Persian as jawānmardī (or, in Arabic, futuwwa). Būshanjī is an arabised form of Pūshangī (sometimes Pūshanjī or Fūshanjī, see Hujwīrī, 59; cf. Āryā, 333–334), a name deriving from the name of the village near Herat where he was born. Abū al-Ḥasan left Pūshang at an early age and went to live in Nīsābūr (Abū Nuʿaym, 10/379; ʿAṭṭār, 2/75; Ibn al-Mulaqqin, 252; Anṣārī, 421). While in Herat he heard ḥadīths from Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Shāmī, …

Bukhārī, Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Arya, Gholam-Ali | Melvin-Koushki, Matthew
(707–785/1307–1383), known as Makhdūm-i Jahāniyān and Jahāngasht, was a prominent 8th/14th-century Sufi of the Indian sub-continent and the son of Sayyid Aḥmad Kabīr. Some more recent sources also refer to him as Jalāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn (Chishtī, 970; al-Ḥasanī, 2/28; Bazmee, 2/392). Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn was born in the village of Uch (Uch Sharif) in the Punjab region of what is now Pakistan, a descendant of Imam ʿAlī b. Muḥmmad al-Naqī, also known as al-Hādī, the tenth in the line of Twelver Shiʿi Imams (Laʿlī Badakhshī, 689–690; Chishtī, …