Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Böcher, Otto" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Böcher, Otto" )' returned 12 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Disciple

(730 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto
The word “disciple” comes from Lat. discipulus. Both terms are used for the Gk. mathētēs (pupil), which refers especially to the disciples of Jesus and then, in a way that transcends the mere teacher-student relation, to the followers and admirers of a religious leader or to the younger members of a religious group. The NT itself speaks not only of the disciples of Jesus but also of the disciples of Moses (John 9:28; cf. 1 Cor. 10:2), of the Pharisees (Matt. 22:15–16; Mark 2:18 and par.), of John the Baptist (Matt. 11:2; Mark 6:29 and par.), and of Paul (Acts 9:25). 1. In the OT we might …

Evangelists, Symbols of the

(725 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto
[German Version] The Symbols of the Evangelists are found from the 5th century on: winged depictions of a human (angel), lion, ox, and eagle, representing the authors of the four canonical Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, respectively. This scheme was based on the Early Church's interpretation of the four living creatures (lion, ox, human, eagle) that, according to Rev 4:6…

Predictive Prophecy/Divination

(1,842 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto
[German Version] I. History of Religions The phenomenon of predictive prophecy is often referred to by the related terms “promise” and “soothsaying,” which vary in content according to context. While soothsaying or divination belongs in the demonic sphere of an individual’s curiosity about his or her future, prophetic promise is invariably understood as the prediction of eschatological and collective salvation; calamity is merely “predicted,” not “promised.” The criteria offered by the Shepherd of Hermas (Herm. Mand. XI [43]) still apply: the divine Spirit inspires tr…

Weissagung

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Für das Phänomen W. sind die inhaltlich verschieden qualifizierten Synonyme »Verheißung« und »Wahrsagung« gebräuchlich. Während das Wahrsagen in die dämonische Sphäre der Neugier des Menschen auf seine individuelle Zukunft gehört, wird Verheißung durchweg als W. eschatologischen, kollektiven Heils verstanden; Unheil wird nur »geweissagt«, nicht »verheißen«. Bis heute gelten die Kriterien des Hirten des Hermas (Herm mand XI [43]): Gottes Geist inspiriert d…

Dragon

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Böcher, Otto
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. History of Art I. History of Religions The word “dragon” (from Gk δράκων/ drákōn, “staring one”?) denotes especially snakes and (mostly gigantic) snake-like composite beings with a numinous aura, but also other composite beings (e.g. the Mesopotamian “lion dragon”: RLA VII, 97–99). Dragons have only positive connotations in East Asia, where they appear as kind heavenly beings, providers of rain and light, and guarantors of fertility. Dragons are also known positively in West Asia, especially in the early Sumerian period, as em…

Miracle

(3,480 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten | Böcher, Otto | Grözinger, Albrecht
1. Basic Considerations 1.1. Distinctions No systematic hermeneutical examination of miracles in the larger sense can avoid articulating exactly which elements are to be addressed as objective facts and which as part of the concept itself. Because arguments on the two sides can no longer be adduced in support of one another, the modes in which the two aspects are examined necessarily also diverge. The remaining conceptual content prompts even further distinctions, depending on whether one is dealing with a simple or a complex concept. Only simple concepts mu…

Prophet, Prophecy

(6,407 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Barton, John | Böcher, Otto
1. Religions 1.1. Definition In Greek the term prophētēs (prophet) refers to one engaged in public proclamation, as by oracles or poets. The word became significant when used to describe an OT phenomenon, as it came to denote the OT prophets in particular and then, by extension, similar NT figures, even though they were not specifically modeled on the OT prophets. The term then became a significant one in Islam, but again with characteristic modifications. In the history of Christianity and Islam (His…

Constellations

(1,114 words)

Author(s): Albani, Matthias | Böcher, Otto | Hübner, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – II. Greco-Roman World and the New Testament – III. Early Church I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The starry heavens were the object of enthusiastic study in the ancient Near East from earliest times. This is ¶ associated with the importance of the star cycles for the calendar and with belief in the divinity of the stars (Astral religion). From veneration of the stars, astral divination or astrology developed in Mesopotamia based on the conviction that …

Descent into Hell

(2,415 words)

Author(s): Böcher, Otto | Sparn, Walter | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Dogma and the History of Dogma – III. Art History I. New Testament Christ's descent into hell, i.e. his descent to the underworld, the realm of the dead, is, as Descensus ad inferos, one of the christological statements of the early and medieval church's confession of faith (Apostles' Creed, Athanasian Creed; Confession (of faith): III). Nonetheless, the NT does not offer a single certain text for this notion; at most, 1 Pet 4:6 may be interpreted as preaching by Jesus to the dead, before his resurrection (cf. Ign. Magn. 9.2; Gos. Pet. 10.41f.; Iren. H…

Elijah the Prophet

(2,156 words)

Author(s): Thiel, Winfried | Necker, Gerold | Böcher, Otto | Hennings, Ralph
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Christianity I. Old Testament Elijah, an Israelite prophet in the 9th century bce, was from transjordanian Tishbe in Gilead (not yet located with certainty); consequently, he bore the nickname “the Tishbite,” but only rarely the title “prophet.” He appeared in the Northern Kingdom and was active under kings Ahab (871–852) and Ahaziah (852–851). He is said not to have died but to have been taken up by God to heaven. The traditions concerning Elijah occur in 1 Kgs 17–19; 21; …

Resurrection

(8,280 words)

Author(s): Ahn, Gregor | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Stemberger, Günter | Sellin, Gerhard | Schwöbel, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Resurrection of the Dead 1. History of religions a. Resurrection as a religious category. The concept of resurrection has been shaped extensively by connotations drawn from the tradition of Christian theology. In this sense, it is understood as a unique event that takes the body and soul of a human being, separated at death, and reunites them for a new, eternal life in the next world. Here it serves to mark a distinction from other notions of a postmortal existence (e.g. reincarnation, metempsyc…

Fasting

(4,168 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Podella, Thomas | Böcher, Otto | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Troickij, Aleksandr | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Ethics – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. History of Religions “Fasting” is a universally attested cultural technique to produce an expansion of mental and social control, power, or awareness (Asceticism) by restricting the intake of food. Many different types of and reasons for fasting can be found in the history of religions, and they are combined in various ways. Several studies have been produced with regard to individual religions …