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Nungesser, Charles

(256 words)

Author(s): Beckers, Thomas
Nungesser, Charles (March 15, 1892, Paris – May 1927 [went missing over the North Atlantic]), French fighter pilot. Nungesser was one of the most famous French fighter pilots of the World War. By the war’s end, he was in third place in the French kill rankings with 45 kills, behind René Fonck (75 kills) and George Guynemer (53 kills). In 1914 while still a cavalryman, Nungesser was awarded the Médaille Militaire. In 1915 he transferred to the air force, where he achieved the highest decorations due to his outstanding flying ability and his courage: the Croix de Guerre and the Chevalier de la L…

Riezler, Kurt

(431 words)

Author(s): Beckers, Thomas
Riezler, Kurt (February 11, 1882, Munich – September 6, 1955, Munich), German diplomat. After studying philosophy and ancient history in Munich, and gaining his doctorate in 1905, in 1906 Riezler entered the Prussian Foreign Ministry as a press officer. Using the pseudonym Ruedorffer, he wrote a well-received book on the essential features of contemporary world politics in which he declared his belief that Germany should pursue and exercise the status of a world power. In relatively stark contrast with the conceptions of the “Pan-German…

Schulenburg, Friedrich von der

(292 words)

Author(s): Beckers, Thomas
Schulenburg, Friedrich von der (November 21, 1865, Bobitz – May 20, 1939, St. Blasien), German general. After completing his secondary education Schulenburg took a law degree at Heidelberg and then began a military career. In 1888 he became an officer in the Gardes du Corps Regiment in Potsdam, and in 1988 was transferred to the General Staff. There followed an assignment as German military attaché in London (1902–1906). In 1913 he was promoted and became commander of the Gardes du Corps Regiment. H…

Seeckt, Hans von

(480 words)

Author(s): Beckers, Thomas
Seeckt, Hans von (April 22, 1866, Schleswig – December 27, 1936, Berlin), German colonel general, commander in chief of the German Army 1920–1926. The son of a Prussian general, von Seeckt entered the army in 1885. After various postings, including one in the General Staff, in 1913 he became chief of staff of the 3rd Army Corps. His corps took part in the battles in France in August 1914 and von Seeckt was mainly responsible for the German success near Soissons in January 1915 when his corps took s…

Kühlmann, Richard von

(348 words)

Author(s): Beckers, Thomas
Kühlmann, Richard von (May 3, 1873, Constantinople – February 6, 1948, Ohlstadt), German diplomat and politician. The son of the director general of the Anatolian Railway, Kühlmann completed his law studies with a doctoral degree and entered the diplomatic service in 1898. After numerous international postings he served as counselor at the German Embassy in London from 1909 to 1914. In that position he worked to create an atmosphere of Anglo-German cooperation and prepared various agreements toward…