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Augustus, Gaius Octavius

(626 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard
[German Version] (Sep 23, 63 bce, Rome – Aug 19, 14 ce, Nola). From May of 44 bce, Octavian was the adopted son and official heir of C. Julius Caesar; from Jan 27, his official title was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus, and after his deification in Sep 14, Divus Augustus. With his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (Sep 2, 31), Augustus put an end to a century of Roman constitutional crises and civil wars. The Empire, expanded between 30 and 14 bce to include several new provinces, was on the threshold of four centuries of peace, marred only by internal conflicts and border skirmishes, under the laws of the Pax Romana (Pax Augusta). In the urban centers of Italy and the provinces, with the ongoing support of Augustus, art, science, and literature flourished greatly. Augustus's political reforms extend…


(1,026 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard


(1,640 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Binder
[German version] I. Definition Censorship -- from Lat. censura (‘examination’, Middle Latin ‘supervision, reprimand’) -- describes the control (preventative or pre-censorship) and/or the suppression (repressive or post-censorship) of written records, esp. literary ones. In antiquity, censorship was unknown in the sense of a set institution, such as existed later in the age of Absolutism or, if more concealed, in the totalitarian systems of the modern age; however, at certain times and places, it was exercised for political or rel…


(548 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] Like the Greek ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον ( ábax, abákion), Latin abacus refers to various objects, made from a variety of materials, and which have the characteristics of a ‘platter, board, panel, or slab’: 1. the board used for board games and dice games ( Board games); 2. the platter used for serving food ( Table utensils); 3. a decorative wall panel ( Decorum, wall cladding); 4. the slab covering the capital of a column ( Column).…


(76 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] …


(1,435 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard; Heckel, Hartwig
[English version] I. Definition Z. - von lat. censura (“Prüfung”, mittellat. “Aufsicht, Tadel”) - i…


(82 words)

Author(s): Ziegler †, Konrat; Binder, Gerhard
(τριετηρίς, trietērís, Adj. fem.). Wörtl. “drittjährig”, d. h. in jedem dritten Jahr eintretend, nach mod. Zählweise “alle zwei Jahre”.…


(499 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[English version] Wie griech. ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον bezeichnet


(1,143 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(ἀγών/ agṓn). [German version] I. Term From the Homeric epics onward, agon meant a '(place of) assembly' and a '(place of) contest'. Agon as contest was not restricted to sporting and artistic competitions, but could also denote a legal battle (Dem. Or. 15,30), a difficult challenge (Soph. Trach. 159), a great effort (Hdt. 7,209) or a hazardous ordeal (Xen. Cyr. 3,3,44). Associated terms were used in corresponding ways: ἀγωνίζεσθαι ( agōnízesthai, 'to contend for a prize, to compete'), ἀγωνιστής ( agōnistḗs, 'competitor, combatant'), ἀγώνισμα ( agṓnisma, '(object/prize of) con…

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro)

(23,159 words)

Author(s): Polleichtner, Wolfgang | Binder, Gerhard | Laird, Andrew
A. Author and work Relatively little in the biography of Publius Vergilius Maro (‘Virgil’, ‘Vergil’) is truly reliable. The following is more or less known. V. was born at Andes, near Mantua, on 15 October 70 BC. He died on 21 September 19 BC at Brundisium. His family was not of high social status. When he died, V.’s estate was of the scale befitting the Roman equestrian class. He was buried at Naples. While the names Vergilius and Maro indicate Etruscan origins, V. may have had relatives among the Oscan-speaking populace, via his mother Magia (or Maia). V. wrote his Eclogues ( Bucolica; see bel…


(2,251 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Saiko, Maren (Bochum)
[German version] A. General In contrast to modern ways of thinking and feeling, in ancient cultures there was a more marked tendency to distinguish between separate stages of a person's life (i.e. as a rule the life of a man); the number of such stages and their names, as well as their delimitation, differ widely in the sources. The designations given to people assigned to a particular stage of life are correspondingly vague and therefore often difficult to differentiate. Basically, two kinds of div…


(233 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Επαίνετος; Epaínetos) [German version] [1] Medicinal plant expert Medicinal plant expert and author of toxicological works, who lived between the 1st cent. BC and the 3rd cent. AD. His views on the dangerous characteristics of wolfbane, hemlock, opium, mandrake, henbane, poisonous mushrooms, black chamaeleon (a plant whose leaves can change colour), of bull's blood, of litharge and of lumpsucker as well as his remedies against these poisons are reported in detail in Ps.-Aelius Promotus' De venenis (ed. princeps, S. Ihm, 1995).  Medicine;  Toxicology Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Vergil (Publius Vergilius Maro)

(21,918 words)

Author(s): Polleichtner, Wolfgang | Binder, Gerhard | Laird, Andrew
A. Autor und Werk B. Bucolica (Eklogen) C. Georgica D. Aeneis A. Autor und Werk Aus den biographischen Nachrichten über Publius Vergilius Maro sind nur relativ wenige Informationen wirklich zuverlässig. Wir wissen etwa Folgendes: Am 15.10.70 v.Chr. wurde Vergil in Andes bei Mantua geboren. Am 21.9.19 v.Chr. starb er in Brundisium. Die Familie war sozial nicht hochstehend. Als V. starb, entsprach sein Vermögen dem eines Ritters der röm. Gesellschaft. Er wurde bei Neapel bestattet. Während die Namen Vergilius un…


(3,541 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] I. Typologie Eine Typologie des K. in der Ant. zu entwerfen, ist bei den vielen Ausprägungen des K., von denen der Liebes-K. nur eine Facette darstellt, schwierig. Bisherige Ansätze gehen diesbezüglich über Materialsammlungen kaum hinaus [1; 2; 3]. Soweit die Überl. es zuläßt, werden daher im folgenden zwei Haupttypen unterschieden: förmlicher K. (in Politik; Klientelverhältnissen; Kult, Rel.) und privater K. (in Familie, Verwandtschaft; Freundschaft; Liebesbeziehungen). Innerhalb …


(2,051 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Saiko, Maren (Bochum)
[English version] A. Allgemeines Stärker als in modernem Denken und Empfinden wurde die Lebenszeit des Menschen (d.h. in aller Regel des Mannes) in ant. Kulturen in Abschnitte zu gliedern versucht; die Zahl solcher Stufen und ihre Benennung sowie die Abgrenzung gegeneinander variiert in den Quellen erheblich. Entsprechend unscharf und somit manchmal kaum voneinander abzusetzen sind die Bezeichnungen der einer Altersstufe zugerechneten Menschen. Grundsätzlich lassen sich zwei Formen der Einteilung un…


(218 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Verf. toxikologischer Schriften Heilpflanzenkundiger und Verfasser toxikologischer Schriften, der zwischen dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. und dem 3. Jh.n.Chr. lebte. Seine Ansichten über die gefährlichen Eigenschaften des Eisenhuts, Schierlings, Opiums, der Alraune, des Bilsenkrauts, giftiger Pilze, des schwarzen Chamaeleons (einer Pflanze, deren Blätter die Farbe wechseln können), des Stierbluts, der Bleiglätte und des Seehasen sowie seine Mittel gegen diese Gifte werden in Ps.-Aelius Promotus' De venenis (ed. princeps, S. Ihm, 1995) ausführlich wiede…


(4,070 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Typology To create a typology of the kiss in antiquity seems rather difficult, given its many specifications, of which the erotic kiss represents no more than a single facet. Existing approaches barely go beyond collections of material [1; 2; 3]. As far as tradition permits, two main categories can be distinguished: formal kisses (in politics; client relations; cult, religion) and private kisses (in family, kinship, friendship; love relations). Within these main categories and th…


(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…


(1,430 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] A. Attic of the older era (until the 5th/4th cents.) Attic, which occupies a paramount position in literature, is verifiable since the end of the 7th cent. through a plethora of inscriptions: private inscriptions, official proclamations, and also inscriptions on vases and ostraca as well as curse tablets (4th-3rd cents.), which in some cases reflect ‘Vulgar Attic’. Since the foundation of the 1st  Delian League (478/7) and during the time when Athens stood at the centre of Greek politics, …


(254 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς). [English version] [1] Athener, Oligarch, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athener, floh 411 v.Chr. nach der demokrat. Erhebung auf der athen. Flotte vor Samos mit dem Trierarchen Eratosthenes [1] u.a. von der im Hellespont operierenden Flotte nach Athen, wo er sich für die Oligarchie einsetzte (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [English version] [2] Sohn des Pasiphon, ca. 350 v. Chr. Sohn des Pasiphon, 348 v.Chr. von Philippos II. bei der Eroberung von Olynthos gefangengenommen, aber danach freigelassen (Aischin. leg. 15…
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