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Arianism

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
Arianism is the teaching of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (ca. 280–336) and his supporters. It arose originally in reaction to the Christology of the apologists. To preserve both monotheism and the deity of Christ, the apologists had adopted the philosophical idea of the Logos, and Origen (…

Monogram of Christ

(505 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
The oldest MSS tradition offers contractions of the divine names, especially ĪC̄ for Jesus (= IHCOYC) and X̄C̄ or X̄P̄C̄ for Christ (= XPICTOC). These contractions, which might be understood as ciphers for the salvation achieved in Christ (Christology), are also found to some extent in monogrammatic form (e.g., as the chrismon, or Chi-Rho) in the Middle Ages in introductions to letters and documents. From around 200 we also find the common symbol ⳨, the staurogram (Cross 3), which is made up of the superimposed letters tau (T) and rho (P) as an abbreviation for stauros / stauroō (cross …

Aberglaube

(2,003 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
1. Begriff und antike-mittelalterliche Grundlegung 1.1. Die deutsche Wortbildung Der Begriff A. (spätmhd.: abergloube) ist eine gelehrte und künstliche Wortschöpfung (eine Zusammensetzung aus ›aber‹ im Sinne von ›verkehrt‹ oder ›falsch‹ und ›Glaube‹), welche seit ihrem Auftreten an der Schwelle zur Nz. inhaltlichen Veränderungen unterworfen war (der bisher frühe…

Petrus Mongus

(179 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Stammler oder Heiserer; gest.490). Als Nachfolger des Timotheus Aelurus 477 von den Gegnern der Beschlüsse von Chalcedon zum Bischof (Patriarchen) von Alexandrien gewählt, konnte er erst nach dem Tod des Timotheus Salophaciolus und nach Anerkennung des Henotikon 482 sein Amt antreten, wurde aber vom Westen aufgrund der Intervention des Johannes Talaia nicht anerkannt (Acacius von Konstantinopel/Acacianisches Schisma). Wegen seiner Unterschrift unter das Henotikon und seiner Weig…

Symeon Stylites

(188 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] d.J. (521 Antiochien – 24.5.[3.9.?] 592), als Sohn der hl. Martha und eines aus Edessa stammenden Vaters geb., mit sechs Jahren Stylit (Säulenheilige) und Wundertäter (S. Thaumatúrgos). Seit ca.540/41 auf dem mons mirabilis nahe Antiochien, wurde S. als Stylit zum Diakon und später Presbyter ordiniert, bes. als Wunderheiliger von Pilgern aufgesucht. Er vf. asketische Werke, Hymnen, Geb…

Studioskloster

(244 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Studioskloster, Kloster in der Psamathiaregion von Konstantinopel, gegründet von Studios (Patricius und Konsul i.J. 454). Die Kirche, eine Johannes dem Täufer geweihte dreischiffige Basilika, wurde 450 begonnen (nach 1453 in eine Moschee umgewandelt, heute die einzige vorjustinianische Kirchenruine Istanbuls). Eines der größten und wichtigsten Klöster der Hauptstadt mit reichem Besitz, wurde das S. im ausgehenden 8. und frühen 9.Jh. unter seinem Abt (hegoumenos) Theodoros Studite…

Silvester I.

(164 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Silvester I., röm. Bf. 31.1.314–31.12.335. Nach dem LP und der hagiographischen Überlieferung Römer, Presbyter unter Bf. Miltiades und Confessor in der diokletianischen Verfolgung (Christenverfolgungen: I.). Als Nachfolger des Miltiades ist er während der Herrschaft Konstantins als röm. Bf. nicht hervorgetreten. Über die Ergebnisse der Synode von Arles (Donatismus), an der er wohl wegen Gefährdung seines Episkopats nicht teilgenommen hatte, wurde er informiert; im arianischen Strei…

Säulenheilige

(300 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Styliten), Sonderform frühchristl. Asketentums (Askese), das im dauernden, meist lebenslangen Stehen auf einer Säulenplattform bestand, wobei die Säule (griech. στυ˜λος/stýlos, daher Styliten) oft sukzessiv erhöht wurde (z.T. über 2…

Simeon Stylites the Elder

(208 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 390 in Cilician Sis – Jul 24 [Sep 1], 459). Without education, Simeon entered a monastery early in the 5th century; he was forced to leave on account of his extreme asceticism. He lived as a hermit in Telanissus (some 60 km east of Antioch). From the early 420s, he lived on a hill atop a pillar that gradually reached a height of over 20 m (Stylite); visited by countless pilgrims, he gave political counsel to several emperors and appeared as a savior to the persecuted Christian…

Peter Mongo

(191 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (“Stammerer,” or “hoarse”; died 490). In 477 Peter was elected bishop (patriarch) of Alexandria by opponents of the decrees of Chalcedon, as successor to Timotheus Aelurus, but he was able to take office only after the death of Timothy Salophaciolus and the recognition of the Henotikon in 482; because of the intervention of John Talaia (Acacius of Constantinople), he was not recognized by the West. He was also opposed in Egypt by Monophysites because he had signed the Henotikon and refused to condemn …

Homoousios

(383 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The Greek term ὁμοούσιος means “having the same ousia/substance/essence.” This compound adjective, which denotes the essential identity of origin and emanation, is found in Gnostic texts and also in philosophical usage after the time of Plotinus and was probably adopted from Manichaeism. It was on account of its Gnostic/Manichaeist connotation that the term homoousios was probably not employed by the exponents of a trinitarian theology of identification (Monarchianism) to describe the relationship of God and the Son/Logos. It is unc…

Gelasius I, Pope

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (pontificate Mar 1, 492 – Nov 21, 496). According to the Liber pontificalis , Gelasius was an African. Entrusted with the papal correspondence under Simplicius and especially Felix III, in the context of the Acacian Schism, Gelasius maintained the schism with the East even after the death of Acacius of Constantinople. In a dispute with the emperor Anastasius, Gelasius developed the “two powers” doctrine, building on the doctrine of pap…

Leo of Ochrid

(199 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Leo of Ochrid, 11th-century Byzantine theologian, chartophylax of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, after 1025 in Achrida/Ochrid as autocephalous archbishop of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule. To support the anti-Western campaigns of the patriarch Michael Cerularius, in 1053 Leo composed an encyclical to “the Franks” ( RAPC 2, no. 862), addressed to the southern Italian bishop John of Trani, in which he attacked Western liturgical practices (Saturday fasting, unleavened bread in the Eucharist) as Judaizing heresy. Commissioned b…

Julius I, Pope (Saint)

(229 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Julius I, Pope (Saint), bishop of Rome from 337 to 352. With Athanasius's and Marcellus of Ancyra's flight to Rome in 339/340, the West became involved in the (church-)political controversies that followed upon the death of Constantine the Great. After the Eastern bishops failed to comply with a summons to attend a synod in Rome, a Roman synod convened under Julius in 340/341 annulled the verdicts of the Eastern synods against Athanasius and Marcellus and rehabilitated both of the…

Pope

(242 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Pope is the designation of the bishop of Rome as successor to Peter (the disciple), head of the (Roman) Catholic Church, and holder of a universal primacy of teaching and jurisdiction within the church (Papacy). In the Greek church, πάπας/ pápas ¶ was originally a title or term of address for abbots and bishops; later it was reserved exclusively to patriarchs. There is inscriptional evidence from the second half of the 4th century for its use by the Roman bishops; in the Latin church, it has been reserved exclusively to t…

Eutychian Controversy

(509 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The so-called Eutychian Controversy was an episode in the christological controversy (Christology: II, 1), that forced the Roman and Latin West to take a dogmatic position and led directly to the christological formula of Chalcedon (Monophysites/Monophysitism). The unstable equilibrium of the Union of 433 between moderate Antiochenes and Alexandrians ( DH 272) was always in danger. Dioscorus of Alexandria, the successor of Cyril of Alexandria, was not prepared to accept a signif…

Eutyches,

(122 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] priest and archimandrite of the Monastery of Job in Constantinople, exercised great influence at the court so that Cyril of Alexandria sought his assistance as mediator as early as 432. As a radical proponent of the theology of one nature (Monophysites/Monophysitism) and an opponent of the union of 433, he was accused of Apollinarianism (Apollinaris of Laodicea) in 447/48 at over 70 …

Euzoios

(186 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] of Antioch (died 376) was a deacon and partisan of Arius in Alexandria. He was deposed and excommunicated by an Alexandrian synod. With Arius, he presented a creed to Constantine in 327 which subordinated the Logos but avoided extremely subordinationist statements (Christology: II, 1). Rehabilitated at the Synod of Jerusalem in 335, he was a presbyter in Alexandria under bishop Georgos. After the deposition of Meletius of Antioch, he became bishop of Antioch in 360/61 at the behest of Constantius II, whom Euzoios baptized shortly before his death, and one of ¶ the leadin…

Silvester I, Pope

(194 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] ( Jan 31, 314 – Dec 31, 335). According to the Liber pontificalis and hagiographic tradition, Silvester was a Roman presbyter under Bishop Miltiades and a confessor in the Diocletian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I). He did not come forward as bishop of Rome in succession to Miltiades during the reign of Constantine the Great. ¶ He was informed of the results of the Synod of Arles (Donatism), which he probably did not attend out of fear of endangering his episcopate; he played no role in the conflict with Arius and Arianis…

Maximinus the Arian (Saint)

(216 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Maximinus the Arian (Saint), a Homoean. In 428/429, Maximinus belonged to the retinue of the Goth Sigisvult in Africa, where a disputation with Augustine of Hippo on the doctrine of the Trinity took place (Possidius, Vita Augustini, 17), the minutes of which are preserved in the Conlatio (CPL 699). Augustine subsequently authored Contra Maximinum ¶ Arrianum (CPL 700) against him. Invoking the Synod of Rimini (359), Maximinus argued in favor of a subordination theology with an explicit use of biblical language. A typical aspect of latter Homoousianism (Homoeans) is Maximinus's emphasis on the created nature of the Spirit. His identity with the author of the
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