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Merger

(423 words)

Author(s): Bridget Samuels
Abstract The coalescence of multiple phonemes into one. Several mergers took place in the consonantal system between PIE and the Classical period, while later mergers transformed the vowel system as it developed into Koine. As a centum language, one important set of mergers in the prehistory of Greek was between the plain velars *k, *g, *gʰ and their palatovelar counterparts *ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ (examples from Sihler 1995).   oîkos *woyḱ-o- ‘house(hold)’   génos *ǵenh₁- ‘race, kind’   khéō *ǵʰew- ‘I pour’ The labiovelars *kʷ, *gʷ, and *gʷʰ inherited from PIE ultimately merged with existin…
Date: 2013-11-01

Attic Reversion

(602 words)

Author(s): Bridget Samuels
Abstract A development of PIE * ā peculiar to Attic, resulting in the merger of * ā with * ē except after e, i, r.   Attic-Ionic differed from other dialect groups in its treatment of PIE *ā. While other dialects typically retained * ā as [ɑ̄] (written as α), in Att.-Ion. merged with inherited (written as η), as seen with timḗ below. In Att., however, some cases of expected [ē] after [e, i, r] surface as [ɑ̄], as seen with neā́, oikíā, and khṓrā:   Att. Ion. other dialects     timḗ timḗ timā́ ‘honor’   neā́ neḗ neā́ ‘new’   oikíā oikíē oikíā ‘house’   khṓrā khṓrē khṓrā ‘country’ Inherited raised to…
Date: 2013-11-01

Labiovelars

(401 words)

Author(s): Bridget Samuels
Abstract Stops made with velar articulation and lip rounding. Mycenaean inscriptions show that the three labiovelars kʷ, gʷ, and gʷʰ inherited from Proto-Indo-European were still distinct from other velars and from labials in most environments during the second millennium BCE. They were represented with the letter qoppa, written Ϙ. A notable exception was when adjacent to [u]; in such instances, the labiovelar unrounded, as it also did before [j]. Both of these developments took place in Proto-Greek (Proto-Greek and Common Greek) ( Stephens & Woodard 1986, Woodard 1997).   Myc. Later…
Date: 2013-11-01