Yoga, the Vedic term for “exertion,” “strain,” or “venture” (related to Gk.
zygon and Lat.
iugum, “yoke”), is a technical term used in various senses.
1. In a less technical sense yoga has to do with forms of trance (Ecstasy), asceticism, and meditation¶ . Two or three such rituals reach back to the end of the second century b.c. in southern Asia. Then in a more crystallized sense we find
jñānayoga, bhaktiyoga, and
karmayoga (yoga through the ways of knowledge, surrender/devotion, and action) in the Bhagavad Gita, and the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali (lived between 2d cent. b.c. and 2d cent. a.d.).…