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Marranos

(373 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
A Marrano is a Christianized Jew or Moor of medieval Spain, especially one who converted only to escape persecution (Conversion 1). From the 11th century Spanish Jews (Judaism), showing that they too had to avoid things, borrowed from the Arabs the term maḥram (something prohibited), which, in its Castillian form marrano, they used to refer to pigs. The reconquistadores then took over the word and applied it to the Jews themselves. When baptism was forced on the Jews, it became a common term of contempt for those thus baptized (they called themselves ʾănûsı̄m, “coerced ones”), who w…

Kurds

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. Names Kurdistan, originally a term for “steppe country” and later for the land of the Kurds, was the term given by the Seljuk government of Iran (1092–1194) to a region that must have stretched from between Lakes Van (in present-day western Turkey) and Urmia (in eastern Iran) south to the Zagros Mountains (extending along the Iran-Iraq border). The basic word came to be used, as in Arabic, as a collective and denoted “tiller of the field” or “shepherd.” Today some scholars identify the Kurds as the Karduchoi of Xenophon’s Anabasis (3.5.15–4.1.11), a group living east of the Upper T…

Krishna Consciousness, International Society for

(1,285 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. Founder Abhay Charan De (1896–1977), founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), was born in Calcutta, where he received university training in philosophy, English, and economics. In 1922 he came in contact with the Vishnu Gaudiya Mission (Hinduism 3.3), whose founder, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura (d. 1937), had prepared the way for the worldwide work of the 32d guru in a succession that had begun with the prehistorical avatars, or “descents,” of the gods (see 3). In 1933 De became a formal disciple of B…

Monotheism

(1,465 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. Term Monotheism is a religious, theological, or philosophical position whose normative feature is recognition of only one God. Those who use the term “monotheism” in either confession or research are differentiating between different views of God. Like other isms, this term also tends to denote a movement, sphere, or epoch in which, whether the respective inhabitants or contemporaries use the term or not, a specific outlook or opinion prevails. Whether those who define their own position claim the validity of t…

Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh

(404 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
“Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh” is the guru name of Rajneesh Chandra Mohan (1931–81). It combines with the given name “Rajneesh” the appellative “Bhagwan,” commonly used in India for gods, demigods, and holy men (from Skt. bhag(a)van, meaning “reverend” or “divine”), and the title “Shree.” Rajneesh was born in Kuchwada (Madhya Pradesh), India, on December 11, 1931. On March 21, 1953, he experienced the “other reality,” which his philosophy enabled him to interpret as God, truth, dharma, tao, and so forth. He deepened the experience by techniqu…

History of Religion

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. According to the view one takes of religious studies, the history of religion is either one department of such studies or it is the main discipline itself. In about 1694 G. W. Leibniz (1646–1716) became the first to differentiate the histoire des religions from church history. In his Natural History of Religion (1757), D. Hume (1711–76) became probably the first to juxtapose critically religion’s “natural history” (terminology adopted by the whole Enlightenment) with the salvation history represented by the church. In French and Italian, for ex…

Cao Dai

(755 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
Cao Dai is the religion of the Vietnamese god Cao Dai, whose name means “great palace.” The full self-designation is (Dai-Dao) Tam-Ky Pho-Do, or “(Great Way of) the Third Forgiveness of God.” Along this way, the unity of all religions is to be recovered, a unity that had already been divided in a “first forgiveness” under the forerunners of Confucius, Lao-tzu, and Buddha Sakyamuni, and then in a “second forgiveness” under these founders themselves plus Jesus Christ. Around this focus, many in th…

Xylophoria

(85 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
[English version] (n. Pl., ἡ τῶν ξυλοφορίων ἑορτή). Das jüdische “(Fest des) Holztragens”. An ihm wurde, vielleicht schon seit E. des 5. Jh. v. Chr. (Neh 10,35; 13,31) und wohl bis Anf. des 2. Jh. n. Chr. (Taan. 4,4: Simon ben Azzai, um 110 n. Chr.), einmal im Jahr (Mitte August/Anf. September) die Darbringung des Holzes hervorgehoben, das zur dauernden Erhaltung des für das morgendliche und abendliche Brandopfer brennenden Feuers nötig war bzw. - nach Zerstörung des Tempels (III.) - gewesen wäre (Ios. bell. Iud. 2,17,6). Colpe, Carsten

Helcias

(170 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Relative and friend of King Herodes [1] Agrippa I Relative and friend of King  Herodes [1] Agrippa I (Jos. Ant. Iud. 19,9,1; 20,7,1), in AD 40 a member of the deputation to the Syrian governor P. Petronius (ibid. 18,8,4), which achieved its goal of stopping Caligula's statue from being erected in the Temple; after that he probably took over the position of commander-in-chief of the army from Silas (ibid. 19,6,3; 7,1), whom he had killed after Agrippa's death in AD 44 (ibid. 19,8,3). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [German version] [2] Temple treasurer in Jerusalem Temple treas…

Heliades

(79 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
(Ἡλιάδης; Hēliádēs). [German version] [1] Officer of Alexander [13] Balas Officer of  Alexander [13] Balas, whom he betrayed after the defeat he suffered in 145 BC at Oenoparas at the hands of Ptolemy VI and  Demetrius [8] II (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,4,8), with another officer and a north Syrian Bedouin sheikh, in exchange for securities offered by the victors, and helped to murder (Diod. Sic. 32,10,1). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [German version] [2] Sisters of Helios see  Helios

Emesa

(386 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Rome (Amm. Marc. 14,8,9; Plin. HN 5,19,81 Hemeseni), city in Syria on the Orontes, today's Ḥimṣ (< Byzantine Χέμψ; Chémps). According to archaeological evidence it had been settled from the 3rd millennium BC but E. has been known to us only from Pompey's time as the seat of a clan of Arab ‘kings’, who were Roman vassals from the time of  Herodes Agrippa I (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,5,4; …

Bethsaida

(189 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Aramaic bēt ṣaydā, ‘house of the catch’ or ‘of the booty’). Place in Gaulanitis ( Batanaea) on Lake Genezareth (in today's plain el-ibṭeḥa) east of the confluence with the Jordan; established as a city in 3 BC by the tetrarch  Herodes Philippus and named Iulias after Augustus' daughter (Jos. Ant. 18,2,1; Bell. 2,9,1; probably today's et-tell), only 2 kms further inland), but in all four gospels mentioned with an Aramaic name (probably just the fishing settlement on the lake, today's ḫirbet el-araǧ). B./Iulias was…

Gamala

(98 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (modern Ḫirbat ehdeb). Town in lower Gaulanitis ( Batanaea; Jos. BI 4,1,1) with a large Jewish component in the population (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,15,3; BI 1,4,8) because of the settlement policy of  Alexander [16] Iannaios. Under the Zealots and  Iosephus (cf. Vita passim), G. therefore became a bulwark against the Romans (Jos. BI 2,20, 4; 6). After an uprising in AD 68, the town was captured by Vespasian, who had all the inhabitants put to death as punishment (Jos. BI 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel…

Anti-Semitism

(937 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] The term anti-Semitism, coined in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, wrongly assumes the existence of a uniform race speaking the Semitic languages. It also integrates into the ideology, which underlies this error and is expressed in this self-characterization, earlier (Christian) religious, political, social and cultural motifs of anti-‘Semitic’ behaviour in the 19th cent. It glances over the fact that such behaviour was not directed against Semites in general but exclusively against Jews. Th…

Cheslimus

(202 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] Jos. Ant. Jud. 1,6,2 (§ 137 N.) calls Cheslimus (Χέσλοιμος; Chésloimos) the eponym of a tribe descended from the Egyptians, which in his model is called kasluḥı̄m (Gen. 10.14 and 1 Chr. 1.12; LXX Χασλ- and Χασμωνι[ε]ιμ, Vulg. C(h)asluim). In Josephus their kindred people are the  Philistines, whilst in his model these had previously inhabited the land of the kasluḥı̄m. If the commentary which states this does not belong to the kaptōrı̄m (cf. Jer 47,4 and Am 9,7), then the kaptōrı̄m must have settled in the coastal areas of Egypt, which were attacked in the 1…

Xylophoria

(103 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (by analogy with plur., ἡ τῶν ξυλοφορίων ἑορτή/ hē tôn xylophoríōn heortḗ). The Jewish '(festival of) wood-carrying'. Once a year (middle of August/beginning of September) it celebrated, possibly from as early as the end of the 5th cent. BC (Neh 10,35; 13,31) and probably until the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD (Taan. 4,4: Simon ben Azzai, c. AD 110), the fetching of wood, which was, or - after the destruction of the Temple (III.) - would had been, necessary to maintain the eternal fire which burned for the morning and evening burnt sacrifices (Jos. BI 2,17,6). Colpe, Cars…

Helkias

(153 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Verwandter und Freund des Königs Herodes [1] Agrippa I. Verwandter und Freund des Königs Herodes [1] Agrippa I. (Ios. ant. Iud. 19,9,1; 20,7,1), 40 n.Chr. Mitglied der Deputation an den syr. Statthalter P. Petronius (ebd. 18,8,4), welche erreichte, daß Caligulas Statue nicht im Tempel aufgestellt wurde; danach hat er wohl die Stelle eines Oberbefehlshabers des Heeres von einem Silas (ebd. 19,6,3; 7,1) übernommen, den er nach Agrippas Tod 44 n.Chr. umbringen ließ (ebd. 19,8,3). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [English version] [2] Tempelschatzmeister in Jerusalem Tem…

Emesa

(358 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Limes | Pompeius | Roma | Sāsāniden | Syrien | Zenobia | Straßen (Amm. 14,8,9; Plin. nat. 5,19,81 Hemeseni), Stadt in Syrien am Orontes, h. Ḥimṣ (< byz. Χέμψ). Nach arch. Hinweisen seit dem 3. Jt.v.Chr. besiedelt, wird E. uns doch erst seit der Zeit des Pompeius als Sitz eines Geschlechts arab. “Könige” bekannt, die von den mit ihnen verschwägerten Herodes Agrippa I. (Ios. ant. Iud. 18,5,4; 19,8,…

Antisemitismus

(935 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] Der Begriff A., 1879 von Wilhelm Marr geprägt, setzt fälschlich die Existenz einer die semit. Sprachen sprechenden einheitlichen Rasse voraus. Er integriert ferner der mit ihm ausgesprochenen Selbstcharakteristik der zugrunde liegenden, diesen Irrtum einschließenden Tendenz auch die bisherigen (christl.-) rel., polit., sozialen und kulturellen Motive “semiten”- feindlichen Verhaltens im 19. Jh. Er überdeckt zudem die Tatsache, daß sich solche Verhaltensweisen nicht gegen Semiten,…

Gamala

(94 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] (h. Ḫirbat ehdeb). Stadt in der unteren Gaulanitis (Batanaia; Ios. bell. Iud. 4,1,1), durch Siedlungspolitik des Alexandros [16] Iannaios mit hohem jüd. Bevölkerungsanteil (Ios. ant. Iud. 13,15,3; bell. Iud. 1,4,8). Unter den Zeloten und Iosephos (vgl. vita passim) war G. daher ein Bollwerk gegen die Römer (Ios. bell. Iud. 2,20, 4; 6); nach einem Aufstand 68 n.Chr. wurde die Stadt von Vespasianus, der alle Einwohner zur Strafe töten ließ, erobert (Ios. bell. Iud. 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bi…
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