Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Colpe, Carsten" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Colpe, Carsten" )' returned 57 results. Modify search


Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Phenomenology of Religion

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. Term and Beginnings 1.1. Between G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831; Hegelianism) and E. Husserl (1859–1938), “phenomenology” was a simple methodological term designed to indicate the fullest possible recording of facts and data. The phrase “phenomenology of religion” was used by P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye (1848–1920) for the phenomenological part of his Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte (vol. 1; Freiburg, 1887; ET Manual of the Science of Religion [1891]). Others in later editions would speak of religious manifestations and ideas. Under this head Chantepie de la…

Yoga

(416 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
Yoga, the Vedic term for “exertion,” “strain,” or “venture” (related to Gk. zygon and Lat. iugum, “yoke”), is a technical term used in various senses. 1. In a less technical sense yoga has to do with forms of trance (Ecstasy), asceticism, and meditation¶ . Two or three such rituals reach back to the end of the second century b.c. in southern Asia. Then in a more crystallized sense we find jñānayoga, bhaktiyoga, and karmayoga (yoga through the ways of knowledge, surrender/devotion, and action) in the Bhagavad Gita, and the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali (lived between 2d cent. b.c. and 2d cent. a.d.).…

Transcendental Meditation

(819 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a spiritual, neo-Hindu movement (Hinduism). 1. Founder The founder of TM was Mahesh Prasad Warma (b. 1911 or 1918). He was initiated into the traditions of meditation by Himalayan and South Indian masters. The last of these, and the most influential, was Shankara (700?–750?). When Mahesh had developed his own method, Transcendental Meditation (TM), he put “Maharisha” (great seer) before his name and “Yogi” (one who practices yoga) after it. In Madras on January 1, 1958, Mahesh founded the Spiritual Regeneration Movement in order to ma…

Fire

(503 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
Fire has played a role in human history at least since Peking man (dated perhaps as early as 500,000 b.c.). In its use by the human race, fire can be both positive (providing light, warmth, and a means of cooking) and negative (bringing burning and destruction). It has been regarded as of heavenly origin, especially when kindled by lightning. When kindled by rubbing, it is a manifestation of human culture. When it came to be viewed as a symbol can be decided only in connection with the development of forms of religion that offer representations and symbols, which differ from culture to culture. I…

Quaternity

(423 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
The number four ranks high among the symbolically significant numbers (Symbol). In translations of Monophysite arguments both for and against Apollinarius of Laodicea (d. ca. 390), theological Latin refers to quaternitas along with trinitas. “Two natures,” it was argued, means “two sons,” and hence we have a tetrad instead of a triad (Trinity). In religious history the term “quaternity” denotes a fourfold structure. On the basis, for example, of the four points of heaven, the four ages, the four sides of a square, the four temperaments, the four…

Animism

(630 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
Georg Ernst Stahl (1660–1734), a German physician and chemist who established the phlogiston theory, used the term “animism” from the psychology of the early modern period, wanting as a doctor to give scientific form to the classical identification of the life principle and the soul. The English anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917) then took it over from Stahl, proposing it in a lecture to the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1867 as a substitute for the term “fetishism” to denote m…

Polytheism

(616 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
1. Term From Thales, the Greeks believed that “all things are full of gods” (Aristotle, De anima 1.5, 411a8–9; Aristotelianism). Only in concrete cases, however, did they call this idea polytheism (e.g., Aeschylus Supp.  424 mentions polytheos hedra, “seat of many gods,” for an altar; Greek Religion). Neither they nor other peoples made of polytheism an abstract concept. The Jews did so when, distancing themselves from polytheism, they criticized the lovers of polytheïa (Philo De mut. nom.  205). So too did Christians, for whom Orpheus taught the Greek polytheotēs (thus the asc…

Xylophoria

(85 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten
[English version] (n. Pl., ἡ τῶν ξυλοφορίων ἑορτή). Das jüdische “(Fest des) Holztragens”. An ihm wurde, vielleicht schon seit E. des 5. Jh. v. Chr. (Neh 10,35; 13,31) und wohl bis Anf. des 2. Jh. n. Chr. (Taan. 4,4: Simon ben Azzai, um 110 n. Chr.), einmal im Jahr (Mitte August/Anf. September) die Darbringung des Holzes hervorgehoben, das zur dauernden Erhaltung des für das morgendliche und abendliche Brandopfer brennenden Feuers nötig war bzw. - nach Zerstörung des Tempels (III.) - gewesen wäre (Ios. bell. Iud. 2,17,6). Colpe, Carsten

Cheslimus

(202 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] Jos. Ant. Jud. 1,6,2 (§ 137 N.) calls Cheslimus (Χέσλοιμος; Chésloimos) the eponym of a tribe descended from the Egyptians, which in his model is called kasluḥı̄m (Gen. 10.14 and 1 Chr. 1.12; LXX Χασλ- and Χασμωνι[ε]ιμ, Vulg. C(h)asluim). In Josephus their kindred people are the  Philistines, whilst in his model these had previously inhabited the land of the kasluḥı̄m. If the commentary which states this does not belong to the kaptōrı̄m (cf. Jer 47,4 and Am 9,7), then the kaptōrı̄m must have settled in the coastal areas of Egypt, which were attacked in the 1…

Bethsaida

(189 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Aramaic bēt ṣaydā, ‘house of the catch’ or ‘of the booty’). Place in Gaulanitis ( Batanaea) on Lake Genezareth (in today's plain el-ibṭeḥa) east of the confluence with the Jordan; established as a city in 3 BC by the tetrarch  Herodes Philippus and named Iulias after Augustus' daughter (Jos. Ant. 18,2,1; Bell. 2,9,1; probably today's et-tell), only 2 kms further inland), but in all four gospels mentioned with an Aramaic name (probably just the fishing settlement on the lake, today's ḫirbet el-araǧ). B./Iulias was…

Anti-Semitism

(937 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] The term anti-Semitism, coined in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, wrongly assumes the existence of a uniform race speaking the Semitic languages. It also integrates into the ideology, which underlies this error and is expressed in this self-characterization, earlier (Christian) religious, political, social and cultural motifs of anti-‘Semitic’ behaviour in the 19th cent. It glances over the fact that such behaviour was not directed against Semites in general but exclusively against Jews. Th…

Xylophoria

(103 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (by analogy with plur., ἡ τῶν ξυλοφορίων ἑορτή/ hē tôn xylophoríōn heortḗ). The Jewish '(festival of) wood-carrying'. Once a year (middle of August/beginning of September) it celebrated, possibly from as early as the end of the 5th cent. BC (Neh 10,35; 13,31) and probably until the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD (Taan. 4,4: Simon ben Azzai, c. AD 110), the fetching of wood, which was, or - after the destruction of the Temple (III.) - would had been, necessary to maintain the eternal fire which burned for the morning and evening burnt sacrifices (Jos. BI 2,17,6). Colpe, Cars…

Emesa

(386 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Rome (Amm. Marc. 14,8,9; Plin. HN 5,19,81 Hemeseni), city in Syria on the Orontes, today's Ḥimṣ (< Byzantine Χέμψ; Chémps). According to archaeological evidence it had been settled from the 3rd millennium BC but E. has been known to us only from Pompey's time as the seat of a clan of Arab ‘kings’, who were Roman vassals from the time of  Herodes Agrippa I (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,5,4; …

Gamala

(98 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (modern Ḫirbat ehdeb). Town in lower Gaulanitis ( Batanaea; Jos. BI 4,1,1) with a large Jewish component in the population (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,15,3; BI 1,4,8) because of the settlement policy of  Alexander [16] Iannaios. Under the Zealots and  Iosephus (cf. Vita passim), G. therefore became a bulwark against the Romans (Jos. BI 2,20, 4; 6). After an uprising in AD 68, the town was captured by Vespasian, who had all the inhabitants put to death as punishment (Jos. BI 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel…

Antisemitismus

(935 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] Der Begriff A., 1879 von Wilhelm Marr geprägt, setzt fälschlich die Existenz einer die semit. Sprachen sprechenden einheitlichen Rasse voraus. Er integriert ferner der mit ihm ausgesprochenen Selbstcharakteristik der zugrunde liegenden, diesen Irrtum einschließenden Tendenz auch die bisherigen (christl.-) rel., polit., sozialen und kulturellen Motive “semiten”- feindlichen Verhaltens im 19. Jh. Er überdeckt zudem die Tatsache, daß sich solche Verhaltensweisen nicht gegen Semiten,…

Gamala

(94 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] (h. Ḫirbat ehdeb). Stadt in der unteren Gaulanitis (Batanaia; Ios. bell. Iud. 4,1,1), durch Siedlungspolitik des Alexandros [16] Iannaios mit hohem jüd. Bevölkerungsanteil (Ios. ant. Iud. 13,15,3; bell. Iud. 1,4,8). Unter den Zeloten und Iosephos (vgl. vita passim) war G. daher ein Bollwerk gegen die Römer (Ios. bell. Iud. 2,20, 4; 6); nach einem Aufstand 68 n.Chr. wurde die Stadt von Vespasianus, der alle Einwohner zur Strafe töten ließ, erobert (Ios. bell. Iud. 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bi…

Emesa

(358 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Limes | Pompeius | Roma | Sāsāniden | Syrien | Zenobia | Straßen (Amm. 14,8,9; Plin. nat. 5,19,81 Hemeseni), Stadt in Syrien am Orontes, h. Ḥimṣ (< byz. Χέμψ). Nach arch. Hinweisen seit dem 3. Jt.v.Chr. besiedelt, wird E. uns doch erst seit der Zeit des Pompeius als Sitz eines Geschlechts arab. “Könige” bekannt, die von den mit ihnen verschwägerten Herodes Agrippa I. (Ios. ant. Iud. 18,5,4; 19,8,…

Chesloimos

(166 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] (Χέσλοιμος) nennt Ios. ant. Iud. 1,6,2 (§ 137 N.) den Eponymos eines von den Ägyptern abstammenden Volkes, das in seiner Vorlage kasluḥı̄m (Gn 10,14 und 1 Chr 1,12; LXX Χασλ- und Χασμωνι[ε]ιμ, Vulg. C(h)asluim) heißt. Bei Iosephos sind ihr Brudervolk die Philister, während diese nach der Vorlage früher im Land der kasluḥı̄m wohnten. Falls hier die Glosse, die dies besagt, nicht zu den kaptōrı̄m zu stellen ist (vgl. Jer 47,4 und Am 9,7), wären die kaptōrı̄m in den ägypt. Küstengebieten anzusiedeln, in welche im 12.Jh. v.Chr. Seevölker (Seevölkerwanderun…

Heliades

(69 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
(Ἡλιάδης). [English version] [1] Offizier des Alexandros [13] Balas Offizier des Alexandros [13] Balas, den er nach seiner Niederlage, die er 145 v.Chr. am Oinoparas durch Ptolemaios VI. und Demetrios [8] II. erlitt (Ios. ant. Iud. 13,4,8), mit einem anderen Offizier und einem nordsyr. Beduinenscheich zugunsten von durch die Sieger angebotenen Sicherheiten verriet und mitermordete (Diod. 32,10,1). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [English version] [2] Schwestern des Helios s. Helios

Helkias

(153 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Verwandter und Freund des Königs Herodes [1] Agrippa I. Verwandter und Freund des Königs Herodes [1] Agrippa I. (Ios. ant. Iud. 19,9,1; 20,7,1), 40 n.Chr. Mitglied der Deputation an den syr. Statthalter P. Petronius (ebd. 18,8,4), welche erreichte, daß Caligulas Statue nicht im Tempel aufgestellt wurde; danach hat er wohl die Stelle eines Oberbefehlshabers des Heeres von einem Silas (ebd. 19,6,3; 7,1) übernommen, den er nach Agrippas Tod 44 n.Chr. umbringen ließ (ebd. 19,8,3). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [English version] [2] Tempelschatzmeister in Jerusalem Tem…
▲   Back to top   ▲