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Jesus People

(1,928 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry
1. Origins The Jesus People were theologically conservative youth in the United States who emerged as a group distinct from the hippie counterculture during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Initially the product of attempts by a few evangelical pastors and youth workers to evangelize hippies, the movement spread and began to attract a following among church youth. After a period of intense media publicity, the movement’s style and jargon were widely adopted by evangelical young people across the na…

National Association of Evangelicals

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry
The National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) is a voluntary association founded in 1942 that represents U.S. evangelical denominations, organizations, institutions, congregations, and individuals. In 2001 it represented an estimated 43,000 congregations from 51 member denominations (totaling nearly 5 million members), individual congregations from 27 additional denominations, and hundreds of independent churches. Including over ¶ 250 schools and parachurch organizations in its membership, the NAE calculates that its core constituency numbers abo…

Student Christian Movements

(2,177 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry
Student Christian Movements represent an important dimension of Protestant missionary and evangelistic work during the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly within the English-speaking evangelical world, and especially in the United States. While originating among, and targeting, university and college students, the movements and organizations that have arisen as part of this impulse have had a much wider impact within the wider Protestant community as a source of pride and inspiration, a practi…

Counterculture

(2,379 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry
1. Term Since the 1970s the term “counterculture” has been applied to a number of late 20th-century sociopolitical movements opposed to capitalist, technological society (Capitalism; Technology). In common usage, however, the term is historically identified with the romantic, youth-based “hippie” movement of the 1960s and early 1970s, which embodied the dissatisfaction of a segment of the younger generation with the conformist, consumer ethos (Consumption) of postwar Western society—particularly a…

Scopes Trial

(152 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[English Version] Scopes Trial, auch »Monkey Trial«. Im Juli 1925 wurde John T. Scopes in Dayton, TN, angeklagt, weil er entgegen eines neuen staatl. Gesetzes die Evolutionstheorie (Evolution) an einer öfftl. Schule unterrichtet hatte. Der Prozeß fand im Gefolge einer ausgedehnten fundamentalistischen Kampagne gegen die Evolutionstheorie und der Verabschiedung antidarwinscher Gesetze (Ch.R. Darwin, Darwinismus) in mehreren Südstaaten statt. Die American Civil Liberties Union stellte Scopes promine…

Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson

(181 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1848, Lewanee County, MI – Jul 24, 1921, Douglaston, NY), Bible prophecy speaker and author. Scofield grew up in Tennessee, studied law in St. Louis, moved to Kansas, and entered politics. While serving a jail sentence for forgery, he underwent an evangelical conversion experience. Ordained a Congregationalist minister, Scofield’s chief fame would come as a defender of dispensational pre­millennial interpretations (Chiliasm: IV) of Bible prophecy. Befriended by such prominent figures as evangelist D.L. Moody, his reputation was sealed with ¶ his immens…

Scopes Trial

(158 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] Scopes Trial, also known as “Monkey Trial.” In July 1925, John T. Scopes was tried in Dayton, Tennessee, for breaking a new state law against the teaching of biological evolution in the public schools. The trial came in the wake of an extensive fundamentalist campaign against evolution and the passage of anti-Darwinian laws (C.R. Darwin; Darwinism) in several southern states. The American Civil Liberties Union supplied Scopes’s defense team. Fundamentalists enlisted statesman and …

Youth for Christ

(135 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] (YFC) is a non-denominational, evangelical, American youth organization created in 1945 at a conference in Winona Lake, Indiana. With an emphasis on local rallies with revival preachers such as Billy Graham, by 1946 YFC activities were attracting an estimated monthly attendance of nearly one million. As the rallies’ popularity waned in the early 1950s, YFC shifted to an emphasis on high school “Campus Life” Bible clubs, camping, and guidance programs. As of 2003 the Denver, Colora…

Schaeffer, Francis August

(201 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1912, Germantown, PA – May 14, 1984, Rochester, MN), evangelical theologian and author. Graduating from Faith Seminary in 1938, Schaeffer served as a pastor before he and his wife Edith were appointed as missionaries to Europe in 1947. Eventually, the Schaeffers settled in Switzerland, where in 1955 they purchased a chalet – “L’Abri” – in Huemoz. L’Abri quickly became a center for touring students and spiritual seekers attracted by its informal theological and philosophical discussions. The 1968 publication of Schaeffer’s books Escape from Reason and The Go…

Schaeffer

(181 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[English Version] Schaeffer, Francis August (30.1.1912 Germantown, PA – 14.5.1984 Rochester, MN), evangelikaler Theologe und Schriftsteller, 1938 Abschluß am Faith Seminary. Er war zunächst Pastor, bevor er und seine Frau Edith 1947 als Missionare nach Europa gingen. 1955 kauften sie das Chalet »L'Abri« in Huemoz nor Allon, Schweiz, das mit seinen zwanglosen theol. und philos. Diskussionen schnell ein Treffpunkt reisender Studenten und spirituell Suchender wurde. 1968 verschafften Sch. zwei seiner …

Youth for Christ

(137 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[English Version] (YFC), nicht konfessionsgebundene evangelikale amer. Jugendorganisation, die 1945 auf einer Konferenz in Winona Lake, IN, gegründet wurde. Ein bes. Schwerpunkt waren lokale Kundgebungen mit Erweckungspredigern wie Billy Graham. 1946 lag die Zahl der Teilnehmer an YFC-Veranstaltungen nach Schätzungen bereits bei nahezu einer Mio. im Monat. Als die Popularität der Versammlungen in den frühen 50ern nachließ, verlagerte YFC seinen Schwerpunkt auf Bibelclubs an High Schools (»Campus L…

Scofield

(157 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[English Version] Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson (19.8.1843 Lewanee County, MI – 24.7.1921 Douglaston, NY), bibl.-prophetischer Redner und Schriftsteller. S. wuchs in Tennessee auf, studierte Jura in St. Louis, zog dann nach Kansas und engagierte sich dort polit. 1879 hatte S., wegen Urkundenfälschung im Gefängnis, eine evangelikale Bekehrungserfahrung. Er wurde als kongregationalistischer Geistlicher ordiniert und errang seinen Hauptruhm als Verteidiger von Deutungen bibl. Prophetie im Lichte des prämill…